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than the acquisition of wealth, it would respect too far is certainly to err in
only be necessary to follow the rule by right direction.
which some people guide their conduct in Another item of character whic!
life, viz. “Get money, honestly if you an important part in moulding the
can; but if you can't get it honestly, get is one's ideas regarding standar
it.” Want of honesty and morality may fort” and expenditure. If a r
in some isolated instances be no bar to ac-

up his mind to practise thrift quiring mere wealth, but generally would considers that word a synony be, more particularly in the case of employ- ness, stinginess, and shabbir ees.

to save money, he has ver The same may be said of punctuality. edge of the world. “T: Punctuality is a habit which indicates a

pence, and the pounds great deal more than the simple facts of themselves” is advice i being at business in good time, keeping an quirements of modern appointment punctually, or making pay- penditure has probabl ments promptly ; it is an indication of than saving and eco character, and as such should be carefully among those whos cultivated. It is, perhaps, quite unneces- and whose resourc sary to lay stress upon the need of main- banks and simila taining a character for honesty, sobriety, iness, or buddi morality, and punctuality by those who are expenditure of ambitious to rise to important positions in part of incor Jife.

There are, however, elements of charac- the very ter more subtle, less easy to cultivate, and made wit yet which have tremendous influence in not judic fixing the stratum of society to which a dicates man is ultimately to rise or fall. Two of A mai these are self-respect and thrift.

CSS regard to self-respect it cannot be too obta:

vers; strongly impressed that the chief means of an

acities, gaining the respect of others is to respect

however, one's self. But there is danger in both directions. Want of self-respect will soon

Se parent, by bring one down, no matter how favorable

best suited to other circumstances may be ; but in guard

the roath, and a ing against it, and it must be guarde against at all hazards, it is possible to

omnes part in forming to the other extreme, and the produc will be conceit and snobbery. The however, plenty of distance between and Charybdis ; the one must be ar and it is well not to go too near th The moment self-respect becom tive quality there is great ri career, while as a positive que develop and increase consid it becomes injurious to succ whose standard of self-res higher standard than their

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re, alas ! too many others have lived to know how at ne form of

some period in their careers they paused

before two turnings, and by good fortune aty alone avoided destruction.

Luck consists of opportunity and assistnce. Opportunity is indispensable to suc

but assistance is not indispensable, ress may be achieved not only withce, but even with that form of rative quantity. Unearned al parentage,

useful nal appearance, good

nt of pure chance ant junctures, these rich facilitate one's eni in life.

properties of money are 1), alike to those who have it 10 liave it not, to require even t comment.

Suffice it to say erience seems to furnish constant ies of the fulfilment of the Scriptural TOX: “ Unto every one that hath shall given, and he shall have abundance ; ut from him that hath not shall be taken away even that which he hath."

Parentage, even in the last decade of the nineteenth century, is a potent ele

ment. The influence of a father who ocos de- cupies an important position in the world a con- is, of course, of service to the son. in which valuable assistance is derived very often and an ab- from the mere possession of a name which in to do seri- indicates influential connections, or kinship

ignorance, or with an aristocratic family, even though n the whole, op- it be an impoverished peerage or a new u may be said that creation. It is undoubtedly true that the

his own oppor- English people “ dearly love a lord,” and uccess ; he can choose it is not untrue that even professing demoi instance. True, if he crats have at tiines betrayed indications of u fortune not to have had a kind of sneaking reverence, not only for ne chosen for him by others, lords, but also for remote collateral def. A man commencing the scendants of aristocratic families, and have life frequently has more than not unfrequently shown a preference for opening placed before him, and leaders chosen from the “ classes." Pa

pends upon a correct decision as rentage still influences employers in the .ch is the better, and that decision selection of clerks and othe

in similar poi often be made through some cir- sitions, although not to so large an extent wstance as purely the operation of as formerly. Caste influence is still so

ance as the result of tossing up a coin strong that the appointment of the son of into the air. The advantages of one a mechanic to be a clerk would, in

many course may be carefully considered and places of business, produce great indignaweighed against the prospects of the other, tion, and most probably the new-comer and yet chance may be the ultimate arbiter. would be virtually boycotted by men perMany who have failed in life have be. haps morally and mentally his inferiors, moaned that failure was due to their hav- and possessed in a less degrec of the ining adopted a fatal course, through no want stincts and manners of gentlemen. This of judgment, when another was open; same caste influence is not confined to the

But

The teachers of the Christian religion cures the opportunity to achieve success, are continually urging upon mankind the and as success depends so much upon

hav. virtues of self-sacrifice and abnegation, and ing an opportunity, it follows that the great wickedness of self-seeking and cheek” may be a most valuable factor ambition. Avarice, greed, envy and covet- in making a successful career. ousness are the motives frequently ascribed Character and ability are admitted on to those who endeavor to succeed in life. all hands to be very important elements of Is it too much to say that very many men success. Merit deserves success, but does desire to possess wealth and influence in not always ensure it, for the reason that its order that they may be enabled to benefit value may be neutralized by bad luck, or others, rather than to minister to their some of the elements of luck in a negative own selfish desires and pleasures ? quantity. A youth who has sufficient natWhether it be to ensure the comfort of ural talent for painting or sculpture to their families, to do honor to the family achieve great success if educated for the name, or to be in a position to confer ben- profession, may, through poverty, parental efits on those who stand in need of assist want of discernment, or other circum. ance, such motives most frequently are the stances over which he has no control, have real incentives to labor and industry on the the misfortune to be placed in sore occupart of men who already have achieved pation which precludes him entirely from soine amount of success.

following his favorite pursuit. Choice of It must be borne in mind that in the profession or business by parents is a lotrace of life, unless a man knows how to tery ; they make soldiers of effeminate keep in the running, there are thousands cowards, parsons of rogues, and lawyers pressing him hard, only too ready to thrust of fools. The coward might do remarkhim aside, and if he fall, to trample upon ably well at something else, but bad luck him without compunction or remorse. has ordained it otherwise. The family Self-assertion is indispensable ; it is nec- living in the Church must not be lost, and essary in self-defence.

A man who is con- the future rector is nominated from his scious of and has confidence in his abili. very cradle. The fine old family business ties, and who neglects to assert himself, of the solicitor must not pass to strangers ; commits a fraud upon those who are de- the son, whatever his mental capacities, pendent upon

him. But self-assertion un- must succeed the father. Luck, however, accompanied by genuine merit becomes Ju- often operates in the other direction, and dicrous, and is correctly described by the the profession selected by the parent, by vulgar word "cheek.

'

But even pure pure accident, may be that best suited to downright “cheek” is frequently the the talents and tastes of the youth, and a means of obtaining a large amount of suc- successful career is the result. cess, because it may secure for one a po- Luck plays an enormous part in forming sition of importance, the duties of which,

For example, in professions like by the exercise of discretion alone, may be the Army, the Law, the Church, or in the satisfactorily discharged by surrounding Civil Service, and large establishments, a one's self with those whose brains, energy, very important element is the removal or discretion and address provide the quali- retention of obstacles to promotion. Morties which are needed to maintain the po- tality among those holding high positions sition and fulfil its obligations. “ Cheek” may give unexpected promotion to some, may, indeed, do more ; it has sometimes while others, similarly situated and whose obtained for a man a reputation for talents prospects may have appeared better, conand attainments which he does not pos- tinue in subordinate positions because no sess, or for having greater special knowl vacancies occur. edge than he does possess. Having Another operation of chance is the age secured a reputation beyond his merits, at which an individual secures his opporhis only care need be to prevent the world tunity, because an opportunity invaluable from being undeceived. This should not to a man under middle age may be absolutebe very often a matter of difficulty ; the ly worthless to an older man. world has always shown a ready disposi- But pure chance exerts its most powertion to assess a man's abilities at his own ful influence in the matter of healtln. valuation, or at a reputed valuation ; and Character and ability of the highest order, as such an over-estinate frequently pro- combined with all the other elements of op

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careers.

portunity and assistance, are, alas ! too many others have lived to know how at often rendered nugatory by some form of some period in their careers they paused ill-health, physical or mental.

before two turnings, and by good fortune When speaking of character, dishonesty alone avoided destruction. was referred to as the frequent cause of Luck consists of opportunity and assistruined lives. Here, again, luck is power- : ance. Opportunity is indispensable to sucful in both its positive and negative forms, cess, but assistance is not indispensable, in the shape of temptation. Who can tell and success may be achieved not only withwhat careers have been blighted and out assistance, but even with that form of wrecked, families ruined, and honored luck in a negative quantity. Unearned names disgraced by the pure accident of capital, influential parentage, useful strong temptation presenting itself! On friends, good personal appearance, good the other hand, who can say what success- report, and the accident of pure chance ful men have been saved by the good for- favorable at important junctures, these tune of having been spared temptation are circumstances which facilitate one's enwhich at certain periods of their lives they deavors to succeed in life. could not have resisted ?

The talismanic properties of money are So with intemperance; a youth sur. too well known, alike to those who have it rounded by bad examples and temptation and those who liave it not, to require even at home is less likely to possess the virtue the briefest comment.

Suffice it to say of sobriety than one brought up among that experience seems to furnish constant abstainers. His failure in life may be the examples of the fulfilment of the Scriptural result due to the accident of chance in paradox : “ Unto every one that hath shall being tempted to do wrong. Of course,

be given, and he shall have abundance ; a man who is a drunkard, even under such but from him that hath not shall be taken circumstances, must be weak in character ; away even that which he hath." but the same weakness of character might, Parentage, even in the last decade of in the absence of constant temptation, have the nineteenth century, is a potent eleproved no bindrance to success.

ment. The influence of a father who ocThe opportunity to achieve success de- cupies an important position in the world pends so much upon health, age, a con- is, of course, of service to the son, But genial profession, a business in which valuable assistance is derived very often competition is not too keen, and an ab- from the mere possession of a name which sence of irresistible temptation to do seri- indicates influential connections, or kinship ous wrong, through folly, ignorance, or with an aristocratic family, even though weakness of will, that, on the whole, op- it be an impoverished peerage or a new portunity is chance. It may be said that creation. It is undoubtedly true that the a clever man can make his own oppor- English people“ dearly love a lord,” and tunity to achieve success ; he can choose it is not untrue that even professing demohis profession, for instance. True, if he crats have at tiines betrayed indications of has had the good fortune not to have bad a kind of sneaking reverence, not only for an unsuitable one chosen for him by others, lords, but also for remote collateral deor by himself. A man commencing the scendants of aristocratic families, and have business of life frequently has more than not unfrequently shown a preference for one good opening placed before him, and leaders chosen from the “ classes." Pamuch depends upon a correct decision as rentage still influences employers in the to wh is the better, and that decision selection of clerks and others in similar powould often be made through some cir- sitions, although not to so large an extent cumstance as purely the operation of as formerly. Caste influence is still so chance as the result of tossing up a coin strong that the appointment of the son of into the air. The advantages of one

a mechanic to be a clerk would, in many course may be carefully considered and places of business, produce great indignaweighed against the prospects of the other, tion, and most probably the new-comer and yet chance may be the ultimate arbiter. would be virtually boycotted by men perMany who have failed in life have be. haps morally and mentally his inferiors, moaned that failure was due to their hav- and possessed in a less degree of the ining adopted a fatal course, through no want stincts and manners of gentlemen. This of judgment, when another was open ; same caste influence is not confined to the

LUCK, MERIT, AND SUCCESS.

BY GEORGE R. GALLAHER.

It was once said of the French Army unsatisfied ambition. The extent of an that every man carried a marshal's baton individual's success is to be estimated, not in bis knapsack. Encouraging as such a by his present position in the world, but figure of speech may at first sight appear, by the distance between that position and it meant nothing more than that no one the point of starting. A soldier of hum. was precluded from competing for the ble origin who has risen from the ranks to prize, although probably only one in a be a subaltern officer may claim to have hundred thousand of those who entered achieved very great success, whereas an the ranks ever succeeded in attaining to aristocratic cadet who attains to the same that much coveted position. Similarly, rank has very little to boast of. From no natural-born subject of Her Majesty is whatever position in life one commences debarred from aspiring to become Lord his career it will be found on examination Chancellor, Premier, or Primate ; whether that the requisites of success are very simhe will ever get beyond the first rung of ilar, differing principally in degree. the ladder depends much on himself, but Success in life depends upon a combinanot by any means entirely, and the object tion of merit and luck. Luck, pure and of this essay is to make an attempt to an- simple, may confer a very great amount alyze and classify the principal causes of of success of a kind, but a man cannot and obstacles to success,

possibly achieve any considerable success Success, from the worldly point of view, on bis merits without a large amount of in which aspect alone it is proposed to re- good fortune of some description coming gard it in this article, may be defined in a to his aid. By luck or good fortune is general way as the attainment to a posi- not meant merely the operations of tion of comfort, influence, wealth, honors chance ; the term is here used as a coland respect. Wealth, indeed, may be in- lective expression for all circumstances cluded in influence, as it is nothing more favorable to a person's success, but not than command over commodities in gen- due to any inherent merit of his own. eral, and to a great extent over ease, The good qualities which constitute power, honors and respect. Happiness merit may be divided into two classes : cannot be included, for while success character and ability. The favorable cirwould probably conduce to happiness, a cumstances which we have called luck may successful man may yet be very unhappy. likewise be classified under two categories : Happiness is, perhaps, correctly defined opportunity and assistance. as a continuing placid state of mind result- It will be convenient, before proceeding ing from the absence of disquieting con- further, to again subdivide these four ditions and circumstances rather than from classes, in so far as they include qualities the presence of elating and exhilarating or circumstances which usually contribute causes, which produce the transitory effect to a successful career. called joy. Fortunately for the human Character is divisible into honesty, 80race, a high degree of happiness may ex- briety, self respect, morality, punctuality ist apart altogether from success in life, a and thrift. lack of material prosperity being fre- Ability, for the purpose of advancing quently more than counterbalanced by do- one's self, consists of natural talent, educamestic felicity, a contented inind, good tion or acquired ability, energy, discretion, health, a clear conscience, and the com- address and self-assertion. fort of religious hope. So little is happi- Opportunity includes choice of business ness a result of success that it is sometimes or profession, removal of obstacles to prothe concomitant of a share of this world's motion, health, age, and absence of goods so meagre as to be almost bordering temptation. on poverty, and conjoined with a life of Assistance comprises unearned capital, labor and obscurity. Indeed, a quiet life parentage, friends, marriage, appearance, has certainly the advantage of being free good report, and the accident of chance. from the strife and jealousy of a life of The whole of the above qualities and

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