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undewed, while the dusty part is damp to tation ; and it is better to bear the inconthe
eye and greasy to the touch. Why is venience of fogs than be subjected to the this ?
evils of a pestilence. At the same time it Fit up an open box with two pipes, one should be known that smoke-particles can for taking in water and the other for tak be deposited by the agency of electricity. ing away the overflow. Inside fix a ther- If an electric discharge be passed through mometer. Cover the top edge of the box a jar containing smoke, the dust will be with india-rubber, and fix down with spring deposited so as to make the air clear, catches (so as to make the box water- Lightning clears the air, restoring the detight) a glass mirror, on which dust has vitalized oxygen and depositing the dust been allowed to collect for some time. on the ground. Might it not, then, be Clean the dust carefully off one half of the possible for strong enough electrical dismirror, so that one half of the glass cover- charges from several large voltaic batteries ing the box is clean and the other half to attack the smoke in the air of large dusty. Pour cold water through the pipe cities, and especially the fumes from cheminto the box, so as to lower the temperature ical works, so as to bring down the dust of the mirror, and carefully observe when in the form of rain instead of leaving it in condensation begins on each of the halves, the form of mystifying fog ? taking a note of the temperature. It will Organic germs also float in the air. be found that the condensation of the Some are being vomited into the air from water-vapor appears on the dust-particles the pestilential hot-beds of the lowest before coming down to the natural dew- slums. In a filthy town no less than point temperature of the clean glass. thirty millions of bacteria in a year will The difference between the two tempera- be deposited by the rain upon every square tures indicates the temperature above the yard of surface. A man breathes thirtydew-point at which the dust condenses the six germs every minute in a close town, water-vapor. Mr. Aitken found that the and double that in a close bedroom. The condensing power of the dust in the air of wonder is how people escape sickness, a smoking-room varied from 4° to 8° Fahr. though most of these germs are not above the dew-point, whenever that of the deadly. In a healthy man, however, the outer air varied from 3° to 54°.
warm lung surfaces repel the colder dustMoisture is, therefore, deposited on the particles of all kinds, and the moisture dust-particles of the air which is not satu- evaporating from the surface of the airrated, and condensation takes place while tubes helps the prevention of the dust the air is comparatively dry, before the clinging to the surface. temperature is lowered to the dew-point. From this outline the reader will obThe clearest air, then, has some haze ; serve the increasing importance of careful and, as the humidity increases, the thick attention to the influence of dust in the ness of the air increases. In all haze the
economy of nature. As a sickness-bearer temperature is above the dew-point. And and a death-bearer it must be attacked and in all circumstances the haze can be ac rendered harmless ; as a source of beauty counted for by the condensing power of unrivalled we must rejoice at its existthe dust-particles in the atmosphere, at a ence. The clouds that shelter us from the higher temperature than that required for sun's scorching heat, the refreshing showthe formation of fogs, or mists, or rain. ers that clear the air and cheer the soil,
But whence comes the dust ? Meteoric the brilliancy of the deep-blue sea and waste and volcanic débris have already lake, the charms of twilight, and above been mentioned. On or near the sea the all the glory of the colors of sunrise and air is impregnated by the fine brine-dust sunset, are all dependent upon the existlashed by the waves and broken upon the ence of millions of dust-particles which rocks and vessel-sides. But the most ac are within the power of man's enumerative of all surfaces as a fog-producer in tion. No more brilliant achievement has towns is burnt sulphur. No less than 350 been made in the field of ineteorology tons of the products of the combustion of than during the past few years by the sulphur from the coal are thrown into the careful observation and inventive genius atmosphere of London every winter day. of Mr. Aitken in connection with the imBut the powerful deodorizing and antisep- portance of dust in air and water. -Longtic properties of the sulphur assist in sani. man's Magazine.
LUCK, MERIT, AND SUCCESS.
BY GEORGE R. GALLAHER.
It was once said of the French Army unsatisfied ambition. The extent of an that every man carried a marshal's baton individual's success is to be estimated, not in his knapsack. Encouraging as such a by his present position in the world, but figure of speech may at first sight appear, by the distance between that position and it meant nothing more than that no one the point of starting. A soldier of humwas precluded from competing for the ble origin who has risen from the ranks to prize, although probably only one in a be a subaltern officer may claim to have hundred thousand of those who entered achieved very great success, whereas an the ranks ever succeeded in attaining to aristocratic cadet who attains to the same that much coveted position. Similarly, rank has very little to boast of. From no natural-born subject of Her Majesty is whatever position in life one commences debarred from aspiring to become Lord his career it will be found on examination Chancellor, Premier, or Primate ; whether that the requisites of success are very simhe will ever get beyond the first rung of ilar, differing principally in degree. the ladder depends much on himself, but Success in life depends upon a combinanot by any means entirely, and the object tion of merit and luck. Luck, pure and of this essay is to make an attempt to an- simple, may confer a very great amount alyze and classify the principal causes of of success of a kind, but a man cannot and obstacles to success.
possibly achieve any considerable success Success, from the worldly point of view, on his merits without a large amount of in which aspect alone it is proposed to re- good fortune of some description coming gard it in this article, may be defined in a to his aid: By luck or good fortune is general way as the attainment to a posi- not meant merely the operations of tion of comfort, influence, wealth, honors chance ; the term is here used as a coland respect. Wealth, indeed, may be in- lective expression for all circumstances cluded in influence, as it is nothing more favorable to a person's success, but not than command over commodities in gen- due to any inherent merit of his own. eral, and to a great extent over ease, The good qualities which constitute power, honors and respect. Happiness merit may be divided into two classes : cannot be included, for while success character and ability. The favorable cirwould probably conduce to happiness, à cumstances which we have called luck may successful man may yet be very unhappy, likewise be classified under two categories : Happiness is, perhaps, correctly defined opportunity and assistance. as a continuing placid state of mind result It will be convenient, before proceeding ing from the absence of disquieting con- further, to again subdivide these four ditions and circumstances rather than from classes, in so far as they include qualities the presence of elating and exhilarating or circumstances which usually contribute causes, which produce the transitory effect to a successful career. called joy.
Fortunately for the human Character is divisible into honesty, sorace, a high degree of happiness may ex- briety, self respect, morality, punctuality ist apart altogether from success in life, a and thrift. lack of material prosperity being fre Ability, for the purpose of advancing quently more than eounterbalanced by do- one's self, consists of natural talent, educamestic felicity, a contented mind, good tion or acquired ability, energy, discretion, health, a clear conscience, and the com- address and self-assertion. fort of religious hope. So little is happi Opportunity includes choice of business ness a result of success that it is sometimes or profession, removal of obstacles to prothe concomitant of a share of this world's motion, health, age, and absence of goods so meagre as to be almost bordering temptation. on poverty, and conjoined with a life of Assistance comprises unearned capital, labor and obscurity. Indeed, a quiet life parentage, friends, marriage, appearance, has certainly the advantage of being free good report, and the accident of chance. from the strife and jealousy of a life of The whole of the above qualities and
surroundings being favorable to and con on to positions of success and emolument centrated in one person would make con. without being dependent upon men, siderable success a certainty. But it will Happily the modern man is evincing a disusually be found that one or more of these position to be less selfish and more just and various constituents of luck and merit are considerate in this respect than his forerepresented by a negative quantity. Upon fathers. However, as society is at present the extent of the deficiencies and the num organized, when we speak of success in ber of adverse elements depends failure or life we are principally concerned with the success. A small minus quantity of hon advancement of men, leaving to women, esty may annihilate every advantage of with few exceptions, sometimes very brillability, opportunity and assistance,
assistance, iant exceptions, only the reflected glory although a superabundance of discretion of a successful husband, father, or son. and natural talent might reduce its dam. Nevertheless, many women are compelled aging effects to a minimum.
to take their places in the great battle of It is obvious, from an examination of life precisely on the same terms as men, the qualities and circumstances already and to such the following rules and remarks enumerated, that women are more depen- are equally applicable. dent upon luck and less on ability than men As previously stated, all the qualities are. The prevalent form of assisting luck and circumstances favorable to a successful which may give a woman great worldly career may be classed under one or other prosperity and honors at one bound, or of these four categories : character, abilmay, when the luck is a negative quantity, ity, opportunity, and assistance. make her life a dismal failure, is marriage. In commercial life, in the professions, It may here be noticed that our system of and in most descriptions of service, the society allows women of ambition to soar great sesame is character. Woe unto the to much higher positions in the social man who has lost his character, or who scale than men are permitted to attain to. has none to lose ! To him the door of A man of middle-class birth, however im- success is closed, bolted and barred. maculate his character and transcendent The chief components of character his abilities, very seldom indeed becomes which most completely ruin a man's a peer ; and however high the position he chances of success are dishonesty and may reach in the political world, the basin drunkenness. Of the fearful curse of inwhich surrounds the fountain of honor, temperance it is quite unnecessary to even though he attain to the premiership, speak; its victims are legion, its havoc he must regard an earldom as finality in terrible, its warnings everywhere. Its acthat direction; whereas, on the other tion is usually slow but certain. A swifter hand, a middle-class woman, with very lit- enemy is dishonesty, it may kill at a blow ; tle merit, may possibly become a duchess. but frequently it, too, grows as a habit Personal beauty may be, perhaps, the upon its victim till at last his doom is cause of such a rapid rise to one of the sealed. Dishonesty is of two kinds : dishighest places of influence, wealth, and honesty that brings one within the law, honors; but personal beauty is an acci. and dishonesty which does not. A man dent of birth, and is the purest chance. may be thoroughly dishonest without actSo, it may be said, is natural talent ; butually being a thief. The consequences of there is this difference, that while natural being a thief are as well known as the contalent is useless, or nearly so, unless cul- sequences of being a drunkard. But the tivated to some extent, natural beauty other form of dishonesty must also be would probably deteriorate by being sub- avoided by those who wish to climb the jected to any process of cultivation. Jadder of success. Veiled dishonesty in
To the vast majority of women the prin- business, which, for the sake of euphony, cipal road to success in life is only to be is usually called “ sharp practice, may found in a satisfactory matrimonial alli- secure gain at the time, but tells to one's ance. This dependence upon Juck rather disadvantage in the long run. Duplicity, than merit is the result of the restrictions untruthfulness, and a want of straightwhich the custom of society formerly rig- forwardness are forms of dishonesty which orously enforced in closing against women often, not always, retard the progress of almost every channel through which, by otherwise gifted men. means of their abilities, they might pass If success in life meant nothing more
than the acquisition of wealth, it would respect too far is certainly to err in the only be necessary to follow the rule by right direction. which some people guide their conduct in Another item of character which plays life, viz. "Get money, honestly if you an important part in moulding the future can ; but if you can't get it honestly, get is one's ideas regarding“ standard of comit.” Want of honesty and morality may fort” and expenditure. If a man makes in some isolated instances be no bar to ac up his mind to practise thrift, and if he quiring mere wealth, but generally would considers that word a synonym for meanbe, more particularly in the case of employ- ness, stinginess, and shabbiness, in order ees.
to save money, he has very little knowlThe same may be said of punctuality. edge of the world. “ Take care of the Punctuality is a habit which indicates a pence, and the pounds will take care of great deal more than the simple facts of themselves” is advice ill-suited to the rebeing at business in good time, keeping an quirements of modern life. Judicious ex. appointment punctually, or making pay- penditure has probably made more fortunes ments promptly ; it is an indication of than saving and economy have ; and even character, and as such should be carefully among those whose incomes are not large cultivated. It is, perhaps, quite unneces- and whose resources are limited (clerks in sary to lay stress upon the need of main- banks and similar institutions, men in bustaining a character for honesty, sobriety, iness, or budding professional men) the morality, and punctuality by those who are expenditure of a disproportionately large ambitious to rise to important positions in part of income on appearances, not perlife.
sonal appearance only, is freqpently one of There are, however, elements of charac- the very best investments that could be ter more subtle, less easy to cultivate, and made with the money. Extravagance is yet which have tremendous influence in not judicious expenditure, and usually infixing the stratum of society to which a dicates a weak point in one's character. man is ultimately to rise or fall. Two of A man who has no other merit will frethese are self-respect and thrift. With quently rely upon reckless expenditure to regard to self-respect it cannot be too obtain for him the character for liberality strongly impressed that the chief means of and the good opinion of his fellows. gaining the respect of others is to respect The foregoing brief summary is perhaps one's self. But there is danger in both di- sufficient to show to how large an extent rections. Want of self-respect will soon success is dependent upon character. But bring one down, no matter how favorable a good character is hardly an active cause other circumstances may be ; but in guard- of success, although it is a condition necing against it, and it must be guarded essary to success. Everybody is expected against at all hazards, it is possible to go to be honest, sober, punctual, moral, and to the other extreme, and the production to possess self-respect; and, strictly speakwill be conceit and snobbery. There is, ing, there is no comparative or superlative however, plenty of distance between Scylla of these qualities in their positive form. and Charybdis ; the one must be avoided, If one man is less honest than another, the and it is well not to go too near the other. former must be at least slightly dishonest. The moment self-respect becomes a nega- If a man is not very honest, he is not an tive quality there is great risk to the honest man at all; and if not very sober, career, while as a positive quantity it may his sobriety becomes a negative quantity develop and increase considerably before at once. But if honesty and sobriety are it becomes injurious to success. By those not active causes of success, on the other whose standard of self-respect is low any hand dishonesty, intemperance, and want higher standard than their own will be im- of self-respect are very active causes of mediately dubbed conceit, and therefore failure, and may exist in every state and judgment is required to fix the lines be- stage from positive to superlative. tween want of self-respect and self-esteem It would be impossible within the limits carried to excess. This zone, for it can- of a magazine article to dwell at length not be described as a line, must not be upon each item of the component parts of fixed for us by others, but by ourselves, the four classes into which the elements of and the taunt of conceit must not be too success have been divided ; indeed, to do readily taken to heart, for to carry self- so would probably result in a réchauffé of
stale platitudes. Having briefly glanced Talent, cultivated or uncultivated, if it at the value of character, we now come to is only of average quality, is financially of ability.
little value. It becomes of value when it “ Forti nihil dificile” was the adopted is above the average, and its value then will motto of Lord Beaconsfield, a man who be found to increase in a geometrical rather rose to a very high pinnacle of fame and than an arithmetical progression. It is in success by means principally of his abili. this respect like diamonds or pearls, the ties ; not altogether by his abilities, for relative values of large and small being out even the circumstance of being placed in a of all proportion to size, every increase in sphere in which he had the opportunity of size adding to the price in a much greater distinguishing bimself was not entirely due ratio until, like the Koh-i-noor and other to his inherent merits, and so becomes luck. historical gems, they become of almost “To the strong nothing is difficult,"' was priceless value.' So it is with talent and his somewhat conceited motto, and there skill. A man may have a talent for music, is truth in the assertion ; therefore it would and may have bestowed upon it considerbe useful to the aspirants to success to able cultivation. Up to a point it will only know who are “ the strong." What con afford recreation to himself and pleasure stitutes this strength which renders noth- to his friends, and at the same time be of ing difficult! It is special knowledge. very little market value, even though a not “The strong' are those who have that very wide gulf divides him from profesknowledge, and who are not handicapped sionals receiving fabulous sums for their with adverse circumstances beyond their services. own control.
Special professional skill or knowledge It must not be assumed that knowledge has proportionally very much greater value is a synonym for scholastic attainments. than average knowledge. In professions Scholastic attainments form a most valuable like those of law and medicine, there is so help to success, but it is well known that much ground to cover and so much knowlmere scholars, as a general rule, are not edge to acquire, that it is almost impossisuccessful men of the world. The branch ble in a lifetime to master every branch of of knowledge which contributes most to the study, and to keep pace with the new success is that which Lord Beaconsfield Acts, judicial interpretations, or medical possessed, a knowledge of men and of the discoveries which each year produces, ways of the world ; and it could easily be To attempt to master the whole would shown by examples that when scholars usually result in general knowledge and have achieved success it has been because skill of only average quality. It is the they have possessed some of the other ele- specialist who makes a reputation and a ments of ability.
fortune. The great secret of professionali The constituent parts of ability for the success is to possess some branch of the purpose of advancing one's self in the world skill or knowledge in a greater degree than are natural talent, education or acquired the average of those in the profession, andi ability, energy, discretion, address and if possible beyond all others. manners, and self-assertion.
for the individual, and certainly better for Natural talent is an accident of birth, humanity, that a medical man, for inand is undoubtedly a kind of luck, but it stance, should devote himself heart and is also inherent merit. Natural talent sel- soul to the investigation and study of some dom contributes to success except when it particular form of disease, and thereby add is cultivated, and when it is applied in a to pre-existing knowledge, and be himself direction where it is appreciated, and in request because of his special skill. wben the person who possesses it knows It goes without saying that those who how to let those to whom it is of value have natural talents and education have an know that he does possess it. The proc. advantage over those who have not, other ess of cultivation of natural talent is called things being equal. It is because other education, and it is only when education things are not equal that men of education bas made considerable progress that it is sometimes fail to succeed, and are pushed possible to discover what natural talents aside in the race of life by others whose one possesses, and whether or not they are scanty information and moderate attainsuch as to be worth placing reliance upon ments are compensated for by energy, to ensure a saccessful career.
cretion, and self-assertion. Naw SERIES.—YOL, LIV., No. 1. 5