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features, the more vigorous its muscles, for many centuries. It united the people the more expressive its countenance. Our of Europe, the speakers of English, Gerown words are old ; our own philosophy is man, Celtic, and Slavonic, of Greek and old ; our own religion is old ; our own so- Latin, into one family with the speakers cial institutions are old. The youth of of Sanskrit, Persian, and Armenian. It the world, the true juventus mundi, lies constituted a Unionist-League embracing far beyond us, far beyond the Greeks, far the greatest nations of history, and made beyond Troy. And even when we have them all conscious of a new nobility in tracked the young Aryas to their common thought and word and deed, the nobility home in Asia, even then we find in their of the Indo-European, or, as it is also so-called Proto-Aryan speech words full called, the nobility of the ancient Aryan of wrinkles, and thoughts which disclose brotherhood. rings within rings in innumerable succes I have been told again and again by my sion.
Hindu friends that nothing has given the Therefore, neither mere old age on one intelligent population of India a greater side nor mere youth and childhood on the sense of their dignity, and that nothing has other can satisfy the true historical student, drawn the bonds of fellowship between unless he is able at the same time to dis- India and England more closely together, cover the laws of growth which explain than this discovery of the common origin what is young by what is old, what is sec- of their language and of the principal ondary by what is primitive, which show languages of Europe, and more particularly that there is and always has been growth of English. and purpose in the world. There lies the You know, of course, that we share true charm of our Oriental studies. China, most of our words in common with San. Egypt, Babylon, India, and Persia, are nó skrit and the other members of the Aryan longer distant from us as the East is from family of speech. You know that the the West. They have really become to us grammar of all the Aryan languages was the true East—that is, the point of orien- fixed once for all, and that it is totally tation and direction for all the studies of different from the grammar of the Semitic the West.
and other families of speech. Think of that one word Indo-European, But though these facts have become which is now so familiar to us that we familiar to us, yet it is difficult to resist actually speak of Indo-European tele- sometimes a feeling of giddiness that graphs, and railways, and newspapers. I comes over us when we see how near the remember the time when that word was past is really to the present, how close the framed, and the shiver which it sent East has really been brought to the West. through the limbs of classical scholarship. Let us take one instance. You know, Nor do I wonder. Think what the of course, that in every language of the synthesis of these two words, India and Aryan race all the numerals are the same. Europe, implies ! It implies that the But think what that means. The decimal people who migrated into India thousands system must bave been elaborated and acof years before the beginning of our era cepted by the ancestors of our race before spoke the same language which we speak they separated, and every number, from in England. When I call English and one to one hundred, must have received Sanskrit the same language, I do not wish its name, and all these names must have to raise false hopes in the hearts of candi- been sanctioned, not by agreement, but by dates for the Indian Civil Service. All I use, or, if yon like, by the survival of the mean is, that English and Sanskrit are fittest. How old these numerals are is substantially the same language--are but best shown by the fact that they cannot two varieties of the same type, rivers flow- be derived from any of the roots known to ing from the same source, though each us, so that we cannot tell why six was running in its own bed. The bold syn- ever called six, or seven seven.
And yet thesis contained in the term Indo-European in Sanskrit, Zend, Armenian, Greek, brought the words and thoughts of the Latin, Slavonic, Celtic, and English we dark-skinned inhabitants of India, brought find exactly the same series of numerals. those very dark-skinned inhabitants of But the relationship is even more close India themselves, at one swoop as close to in other parts of the language, and the deus as the Greeks and Romans have been pendence of the English of to-day on the
Sanskrit as spoken two or three thousand If, then, our rule that t becomes th in years ago is sometimes perfectly startling. Anglo-Saxon holds good, that t of the parAllow me to give you one illustration, ticiple should appear in English as th. It which, though it is somewhat tedious, will should be death (A. S. death), not dead surprise you by what the French would (A. S. dead). In the substantive death call the solidarité which still exists be- (A. S. death), on the contrary, we have tween Sanskrit and English.
quite regularly, and in accordance with Why do we say in English dead and Grimm's Law, the th, which corresponds death? I mean, why is there a d as the to the t of a suffix well known in many termination of the participle, and a th as Aryan languages, used for forming abstract the termination of the substantive? This and other nouns, namely tu. may seem
& very far-fetched question. cases this suffix tu leaves the accent in Most people would say that it is no use Sanskrit on the radical portion of a word. asking such questions, because it is im- Thus from vas, to shine,” we have váspossible to answer them. Grammar tells tu, shining, or the morning;
From us that the participle is forined by d, and
a dwell. the substantive by th, and there must be ing,'
the Greek άστυ,
, town." The an end of it. The Science of Language, Sanskrit krátu, might," appears
in however, takes a very different view. It Greek as kpatus, might."
In some holds that everything in language has a cases, however, the accent in Sanskrit as reason, and that it is our own fault if we in Greek falls on the last syllable, as in cannot discover it. Now here, in order ritú, season, gâtú, "going," to discover the reason for d in dead and path.” As forming abstract nouns the for th in death, it will be necessary to en same suffix tu is most frequent in Latin, ter into some minutice of comparative in such words as status, from stå, to grammar. You have probably all heard stand," tactus, “touch," from tangere, , of Grimm's Law. It is a very wonderful and many more. Jaw, but we have now got far beyond it. By means of the same suffix, Gothic Well, according to Grimm's Law, wher- formed the word dauthu-8, “ death," and ever we find in Sanskrit, in Greek and here you see that the rule holds good, and Latin, in Celtic and Slavonic a t, we find that the original t appears as th. in Gothic, in Anglo-Saxon, and therefore Why, then, we ask, was Grimm's Law in English, the aspirated t or th. Even broken in the case of the participle dead, this, if you come to think about it, seems and maintained in the case of the suba marvellous fact. There is no exception stantive death? Why is it to be called a to this rule ; at least, none that cannot be law at all, if it can be broken so easily ! acconnted for. And an exception that You will hardly believe it when I tell can be accounted for is no longer an ex you that the reason why in dead the parception ; on the contrary, it is an excep ticipial t was changed into d and not into tion which was said to prove the rule. th, and the reason why in death the orig
If “ three” is trayas in Sanskrit, tres inal t has been changed into th, has been in Latin, Tpeis in Greek, it must be three discovered in India, and in the language in English. If “thou” is tuam in San as spoken there three or four thousand skrit, tu in Latin, ou for tú in Greek, it years ago. It is a general rule in the anmust be thou in English. Thus Latin cient Vedic language that the accent must tonitrus is thunder, tectum is thatch, tenuis fall on the vowel following the t of the is thin. In the middle of a word, also, participle. We have to say, yuktá, kritá, t becomes th, as in father for pater, dattá. But in many of the substantives mother for mater. And likewise at the ending in tu, the accent falls on the vowel end, as in tooth for dens, dentis.
preceding the t. Hence vástu, krátu, With this rule clearly before our mind, etc. Whenever the accent in ancient Sanlet us now advance a step further. skrit falls on the vowel following the t, as
The termination of the past participle in the participle, Grimm's Law does not in all Indo-European languages is formed apply ; t does not become th, but d.
. But by t. Thus in Sanskrit we have from whenever the accent precedes the t. yug, “ to join,” yuk-ta,“ joined,” as we Grimm's Law applies, and t is changed have in Latin from jungo, “I join," into th, as in death. Grimm's Law is junctus, “joined.”
therefore not broken. It is rather con
firmed by a new law that comes in, and standing before us so much alive, so much shows once more the marvellous regularity able to will us, and to make us say either in the growth of language—a regularity d or th, whether we like it or not? which, if we fully realize what it means, have heard of letters from the Mahâtinas seems almost miraculous. The same hid- of Tibet flying through the air from Lhassa den influences which were at work in pro- to Calcutta and to London. This does ducing two such words as dead and death very well for a novel. But here we have. were likewise active in all similar cases. in sober earnest the very accents of the anThey, and they alone, help us to account cient language of the Veda flying across for the difference between such words as thousands of years from the Sutledj to the healed and health, to seathe and sodden, Thames, so that we, in this very hall here, when we have in Anglo-Saxon seô than, must say death but dead, health but healed, sêath, but sudon and sodin.
to seethe but sodden, simply and solely beMy chief object in drawing your atten cause some dark-skinned poets in the comtion to this one case was, to show how mon home of the Aryan race, in Asia, near such a language as Sanskrit, which chose to say something like dhůtá for has sometimes been called the most an “ dead," and dhavátu for “ death.' cient language of the world, is really to I am afraid this illustration may have us. The ghost of that dead language, or proved rather tedious and difficult 10 folof some even more ancient ancestor, still low. But it was necessary to give it in haunts the dark passages of our own order to make you see with your own eyes speech. Though dead it still speaketh. what I mean when I say that the true Think only what this means. Sanskrit charm of antiquity lies in its being so ceased to be a spoken language in the third modern-not in its being remote, but in century B.C. Even at that time its accents its being so near to us, so close, so omnihad ceased to be what they were in Vedic present. If Sanskrit were simply a piece times. Instead of being complicated, like of antiquity-aye, if it were as old as the the accent in Greek, they had become megatheria, or as old as the hills—we simplified, like the accents in Latin or might stare at it, we might wonder at it, English. We did not even know that but it would never attract us, it would Sanskrit had ever been pronounced accord never make us ponder, it would never help ing to the strict rules of accent till we be us to learn how we came to be what we are. came acquainted with the literature of the I say, therefore, that antiquity by itself Vedic age. There, and there alone, the is nothing to us, and if Oriental languages, accents were marked in our MSS., and ex such as the ancient language of India, or plained to us by the ancient grammarians of Egypt, Babylon, China, could display of India, who composed their grammars no other attractions than the wrinkles of in about 500 B.C.
old age, they would never have gained such Think, then, on the other side, for how ardent admirers as they still count among many centuries, if not for how many the young and the old members of this sothousands of years, Teutonic has been a ciety. separate and independent branch of Aryan Sanskrit, no doubt, has an immense adspeech, spoken as Gothic on the Danube, vantage over all
the other ancient languages as Saxon near the Elbe, as Anglo-Saxon of the East. It is so attractive, and has on the banks of the Thames. Think of its been so widely admired, that it almost free and independent growth within these seems at times to excite a certain amount realms—and then try to understand how of feminine jealousy. We are ourselves such a minute point in English grammar, Indo-Europeans. In a certain sense we are the d of the participles and th of its ab- still speaking and thinking Sanskrit ; or, stract substantives, is still under the sway more correctly, Sanskrit is like a dear aunt of a change of accent from the ultimate to to us ; she takes the place of a mother the penultimate syllable, which took place who is no more. thousands of years ago in the language But other languages of the East also spoken by the poets of the Veda in the ahve lost their remoteness, and have envalleys of the Penjab. Is not this more tered by one way or another into the arena marvellous than a ghost story by Rider of modern thought. The monuments of Haggard ! Does it not make our hair Babylon and Assyria may be very old, but stand on end when we see a dead language what would they have been to us if those
long rows of wedge-shaped inscriptions been slow to avail itself of the Mährchen had not been deciphered by the brilliant of ancient Egypt in order to show how genius and the persevering industry of our even the nurseries of the whole world are honored Director, and had not disclosed akin. The solemn Egyptians were as fond an intiniate relationship between the of stories as all other nations. Some of language of the Mesopotamian kingdoms these stories have lately been translated, and what we call the Semitic languages and these translations may, on the whole, still spoken by Arabs, by Syrians, and by be accepted as trustworthy. I shall read Jews? Nor was it their language only you one, translated by Professor Brugsch, that has brought the cuneiform inscriptions and which he considers as the prototype within the sphere of our scientific interests. of another story with which we have all After all, though we are Aryas in language been familiar from our early childhood :and thought, our religion has drawn many elements from Semitic sources. The Old
The two sons of one father and one mother Testament is nearer to us than the Veda.
were, on some beautiful day, doing their work
in the field. It was by showing us the real historical
The great brother gave an order to the little position of the sacred traditions of the brother, saying, “Go away from here, and Jews among the traditions of the Babylo- fetch me seed.corn from the village.” The nians and Assyrians, and of the whole little brother went to find the wife of his great Semitic race, that cuneiform studies have ting her hair. And he said to her, “ Rise and
brother, and found her sitting and busy plat. taken their place within the sphere of mod- give me seed-corn, that I may return to the ern research, and are helping us to solve field, for my great brother has commanded me questions which have perplexed Biblical saying,' Hasten back to me and do not students for centuries,
And the woman said to him, " Go The traditions tarry.'
and open the seed-chest, that thou mayest about the Creation of the world, about the
take what thy heart desires, and that my hair Deluge, about the Tower of Babel, are may not be unfastened while I go." now known to have been Semitic in a gen Then the youth went to his chamber to fetch eral sense ; they were not, as we imagined a large measure, for he wished to carry off as
much seed as possible. After he had loaded -nay, as we were called upon to believe
himself with barley and buck-wheat, he -the exclusive property of the Jewish marched away with his heavy burden. But race.
the woman stood in his way and said, “ How Egypt also has been drawn into this en heavy is the burden ?" He answered, “ Three
bushels of buck-wheat and two bushels of bar. chanted and enchanting circle.
ley ; together they are tive bushels that rest hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic litera
on my shoulders." ture now claims a voice in the council of Thus he spoke to her, and she laid hold of the moes modern research. The close him and said, “Let us rest for an hour. I relations between Egypt, Babylon, and
shall give thee precious garments and all that
is most beautiful." Palestine in the most ancient times have
But the youth became furious at this base lately received an unexpected confirma- proposal, like
proposal, like a panther from the South, and A diplomatic correspondence be she was very much terrified, yes, very much. tween the Courts of Egypt and Babylon
And he addressed her saying, “Look, thou, has been discovered which is referred to
O woman, hast been to me like a mother, and
thy husband like a father, because he is older 2000 B.C. That Egypt influenced not than I, and he has brought me up. Is it not only Palestine from the days of Moses, but a great sin what thou hast said to me? Never likewise Babylon and Nineveh, as, in later repeat that speech. Then no man shall hear times, Greece, can no longer be doubted.
a word of it out of my mouth." With every year new rays of light from
Then he lifted his barden and walked to the
field, and came to his great brother, and they the land of the pyramids help us to see found plenty of work to do. And when the how much in our most familiar thoughts evening drew near, his great brother returned comes from Egypt. I will not tell you to- home, but his little brother remained with the night the fairy story of the migration of flock, laden with all the good things of the our alphabet. Suffice it to say that, as in might rest in the stable in the village.
field. And he led the flock home, that it speaking English we speak Sanskrit, in 5 But lo, the wife of his great brother was writing our letters we are really scrawling afraid on account of the proposal which she hieroglyphic signs.
had made to the little brother. And she But let us look for a moment at the swallowed a potful of fat, and became as one
who was sick, for she wished her husband to folk-lore of Egypt. Folklore, you know, think that she was sick on account of his litis very popular just now, and it has not tle brother.
* And when her husband came home in the her almost incestuous passion for her husevening and entered the house, as was his band's younger brother, who had the same wont, he found his wife lying on her couch, father and the same mother, and to whom as if going to die. She did not pour water over his hands, according to custom, nor did she herself had been like a mother. These she light the lamp before him, so that the characteristic features are entirely absent house was dark. And she lay still and was sick. in the story of Potiphar's wife. She is
Then her husband said to her, spoken to thee?" And she answered, “No simply a frail woman, the wife of a captain one has spoken to me except thou and thy lit
of the guard ; and I must leave it to my tle brother. When he came home to fetch friends the folk-lorists to determine the seed, he found me alone and asked me to whether there could only have been one rest with him for an hour. But I did not lis- Potiphar's wife in the whole ancient histen to him, and said, “ Am I not thy mother, tory of Egypt, or whether the chapter of and is not thy great brother to thee like a father?' Thus i spake to him, but he did not accidents and accidental coincidences is mind my words, but beat me, that I should not larger than we imagine. not inform thee. Now, if you allow him to Having thus shown you by a few exlive, I shall kill myself.'
amples how near the language, the literaProfessor Brugsch thinks that we have ture, the religion, and even the folk-lore to recognize in this popular Egyptian story of India, Babylon, Nineveh, and Egypt the source of the story of Joseph and Poti- have been brought to us, and how closely phar's wife, as preserved to us in the Book they touch even some of the burning quesof Genesis. Most students of folklore will tions of our own time, I should like, by probably agree with him ; but I think we way of contrast, to say a few words about ought to pause. We may admit that it is China. China claims to possess the most possible, that it is probable ; but we can ancient literature of the world, but not say that it is proven.
that its extreme old age, supposing it were There is one objection pointed out by granted, has proved as yet of very little atProfessor Brugsch himself. · He says that traction. Chinese studies are confined to such names as Potiphar never occur in a very small number of scholars. The Egyptian before the ninth century, and public at large, which is always ready and that therefore Moses himself could never anxious to listen to anything new or old have heard the name of Potiphar and his from India, from Babylon, Nineveh, or wife. Potiphar in Egyptian means the from Egypt, takes little notice as yet of gift of the god Ra, from puti, gift, and the saying and doings of the old emperors ra, the god Ra, with the article p. It of China. would, therefore, have meant the same as Why is that? Because there are no inthe Greek name Heliodoros. Professor tellectual bonds that unite us with ancient Brugsch is, no doubt, a very high author. China. We have received nothing from ity on such matters, perhaps the highest. the Chinese. There is no electric contact Still it seems to me that very important between the white and the yellow race. It arguments bave been brought forward to has not been brought near to our hearts. show that proper names, formed on the China is simply old, very old—that is, resame lines as Potiphar, do occur at a much mote and strange. If Chinese scholars earlier time. On this point we must wait would bring the ancient literature near to for Professor Brugsch's reply. But even us, if they would show us something in it if he were right on this point, folk-lorists that really concerns us, something that is would say that the story in Genesis might not merely old but eternally young, still have been borrowed from Egyptian, Chinese studies would soon take their place because no scholar pow maintains that the in public estimation by the side of Indotext of Genesis, as we possess it, is older European, Babylonian, and Egyptian than the ninth century, or that it was writ- scholarship. There is no reason why China ten down before about 500 B.C.
should remain so strange, so far removed What makes me feel doubtful whetber from our common interests. There is the story in Genesis was really borrowed much to be learned, for instance, in watchfrom the Egyptian story is something ing the origin and growth of the Chinese different. It is the peculiar character of system of writing. There is more of the Egyptian story. The sinfulness of the psychology and logic to be gathered from Egyptian woman consists not so much in the pictorial representation of thought in her falling in love with a stranger, as in China than from many lengthy treatises