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seeking an asylum in France. On a tempestuous night, when the exiled king embarked on the river, to find a foreign vessel, bis daughters, Mary and Anne, appeared in public decorated, with orange ribbons. The Roman Catholic friends of James, the Pope, the King of France, and his last wife, Mary of Modena, had all remonstrated with him upon his violent measures, and bold defiance of the public sentiment, and constitutional laws of England. His downfall did not, therefore, cause much surprise abroad. Inva. sions of England, to recover his throne, were planned by James. The famous battle of the Boyne, in Ireland, was a contest for him by his friends, whom he deserted in their defeat, withdrawing secretly into France.

At his little court, at St. Germains, James spent the remainder of his life, and as is said, virtuously and piously, living sparingly upon a small pension allowed him by the French king. The intercourse between Louis XIV. and the dethroned and banished monarch, affords to the reader of history, pleasant and instructive passages. In Memoirs of King James, by the Duchess of Orleans, it is said “he died with resignation and without bigotry, thus in a different manner from what be lived."

The Prince of Orange, though receiving the crown in right of his wife, as the successor of her father, was in effect sovereign, except that the name of Mary was associated with his. Burnet says, "her admirable temper made her acquiesce in this exclusion from

power, which the sterner character of her husband demanded." "Such," says Hallam, " was the termination of that contest which the house of Stuart had obstinately maintained against the liberties, and of late against the religion of England. * But since the revolution of 1688, it seems equally just to say, that the predominating character has been aristocratical. * No part of our history, perhaps, is read upon the whole with less satisfaction than the thirteen years in which William III. sat upon his elective throne.” It is very easy to imagine that, amidst all the confused elements of broken parties and contending opinions, and after so many revolutions as had agitated the kingdom, that the new sovereign should have found it difficult to satisfy all claims and expectations. The Tories, the Jacobites, and the HighChurch party attempted, from time to time, to gather forces and oppose the sovereign, whom they considered as a usurper. But the Revolution gradually ceased to agitate men's minds. The

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majority of the nation sustained William III., and regarded Queen Mary with respect and loyalty.

The character of William appears not without its faults; among the chief is the ambition to govern arbitrarily at home, and to extend the terror of his arms to distant countries. He showed a jealousy towards the infant Colonies in America, kindled the flames of a war, which caused Canadians and Indians to unite in the work of conflagration and slaughter, in a contest with English forces, composed of troops from abroad, and the emigrant settlers in the British colonies. This was called “King William's war;" it was attended with the burning of settlements and with all the cruelties of Indian warfare. The last sovereign of the Stuart dynasty, was Queen Anne, second daughter of James II. Her reign was short (she died in 1713,) but rendered glorious by the victories of her great General, the Duke of Marlborough, over the disciplined armies of France, under Louis XIV. James II. his death-bed at St. Germains, appointed his son James as his successor ; Louis XIV. solemnly promising to maintain his claim to the throne of England. This laid the foundation for new disturbances and wars. The Scottish Highlanders, ever loyal to the Stuarts, united as allies with the forces of the French king to support James VII. of Scotland, and James III. of England, as he was, by his friends, called. But the movement was unsuccessful; the French fleet which had been sent with James, returned without coming to any engagement, carrying back the aspirant for the throne, and thus ended the revolutionary attempts of 1713.

The son of James, Charles Edward, called the Pretender, stirred up another insurrection in 1745. The story of Scott's Waverly, is founded upon the movement made by the Highlanders in his favor. Fergus MacIva and his sister Flora, being sworn friends of the Prince, who is personally introduced to the hero of Waverly, and by his engaging manners induces him to join the forces, with which it was vainly hoped the Hanoverian succession might be overthrown. In “Red Gauntlet,” the author describes the Jacobite conspiracy of 1745, and the battle of Culloden, which forever put to rest the pretensions of the Stuarts to the throne of England.

The Jacobite feeling long remained powerful both in England and Scotland, and it became a matter of conventional courtesy, in polite society, to avoid the use of the term Pretender," as

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offensive to the adherents of the Stuarts, who for some time forbore to apply the name “ King" to the Hanoverian sovereignsthe Jacobite clergy praying for “those in authority," instead of using the authorized petitions for "the king and all members of the royal family."

While England was thus a prey to internal faction and civil war, disturbed by divided councils in her parliament, and contending for religious creeds and forms of worship, a new nation arose in America, as the fruit of religious persecution; loyal as British colonists until driven by oppression to assume independence, with the motto upon its national escutcheon, “United we stand, divided we fall." Though America sought not to rend asunder the ties which bound her to the parent country, the time had come for separation. She was strong and powerful, with vast territories, divided by an ocean from Europe ;-with a just cause and expediency on her side, the separation or secession from England was a wise measure.

Arr. V.-1 History of the Inductive Sciences, from the Earliest to the

Present Time. By WILLIAM WHEWELL, D.D. In two volumes.

New York : 1858. 2. Paiaontology, or a Systematic Summary of Extinct Animals, and

their Geological Relations. By RICHARD OWEN. Edinburgh : 1860. 3. Principles of Human Physiology, with their Chief Applications to

Psychology, etc. By Wm. B. CARPENTER, M.D., F.R.S. Edited by

F. G. SMITH, M.D. Philadelphia : 1860. 4. A Manual of Human Microscopic Anatomy. By A. KOLLIKER.

London : 1860. 5. On the Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection ; or the Pre

servation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life. By CHARLES DARWIN, M.A. London : 1859.

From the earliest recorded life of man on our globe, to the present, there has been a gradual enlarging, but usually slow and silent, and not always continuous, of the boundaries and scope of human thought. Sometimes a single grand step is taken that ever after marks an epoch ; oftener, the steps are numerous, and, individually, of trifling magnitude. We shall discover this broadening of the known and the probable in the provinces of space, time, cause, system; and in that of expression, which reports and chronicles all the rest. In and of themselves, all concernments of a race of jelly-fishes would rightly be conceded trivial enough. But man's real difference from the jelly-fish comes by an endowment of rational mind, and of an organization such as this mind necessitates. In truth, therefore, all history of man comes to be of interest only as constituting a history of the mind in man. And this, if we have judged aright, is a story of repeated widenings, away on every side, liftings farther up, and thrustings deeper down, of the veil of shadows dividing, for each of us, the absolutely unknown from the known. Suppose an adult human being, but as yet wholly destitute of knowledge, brought from some home in distant space-it would be easier in mythological times, than at present, to devise how—and in a night of darkness, starless and thick, set down on some hilltop, from which day reveals a wide circuit, embracing woodland and glebe, hamlet and city, river, bay, and ocean. His sensations inform the new-comer of the surface he rests on, and the space occupied by himself. This is the limit of his corception and thought. Let, now, the dark cloud open above him, and roll away. The starry host look down on him, apparently from a solid dome of faint azure hue. He reaches up : neither the scintillating points nor the cerulean arch meet his touch. But he has no reason to think them very remote—it may be they are several times his own height above his head. He accidentally puts out his hand, and explores a little space about him. Himself, that small canopy studded with brilliants, and that meagre plat of ground, are now his slightly enlarged universe.

At length, twilight peeps out in the east; and her first rays variously bent and reflected by the atmosphere, begin faintly to light the earth's surface, and first of all the hill-tops. No experience has taught him to turn and look for the source of the change ; but now he begins to see about him. One spot or object after another, farther and farther away, then down the hill-slopes and out on the plain, comes into view. We will imagine that, at least to the child's limit, our stranger's judgment of distances, as determined by intervening objects on the earth, keeps pace with the successive presentation of them. Thus, gradually, in the growing light, this clump of bushes, those cattle, yonder dwellings, and then the city, bay, ocean, and remote forests, acquire to his

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perception individuality and place. And now, though the stars have faded out, the sun rises, flooding the scene with light; the circle of the horizon lies defined around him ; and while at this, as at a common rim, the earth and sky apparently meet, yet to his vision they also stand dissevered, forming the larger limits of his prospect, and necessarily of his thought.

Certainly analagous to this imaginary course of enlarging idea, has been the intellectual experience and growth of man on our planet. We will not, however, urge the parallel farther. We leave our supposed stranger, in fact, at the very point to which the judgment of the first matured man must have attained. The latter had pushed away the surrounding walls so far, and had seen them shifting about him as he went fleetly over the sward ; but just so far off they continued, nevertheless, to hang, fixed and impenetrable. From a universe of such calibre as we have now determined, the enlarging thought of the race was to begin. For we have little reason to believe that our first matured observer could discern farther or more deeply in the social or moral, than in the physical field, of the wonderfully complex being he had en

tered upon.

Lucian records the popular, or, at least, the generally received, earlier notion of the space above the earth, and by implication, too, the standard of moral conceptions, of a race of as active minds, even, as were the Greeks. The firmament, or concave of heaven was of brass; and one who crept under its edge, getting on the upper side, would have the light of a purer sun, and of more brilliant stars, and walk on a pavement of gold. Passing the hours, who were the gate-keepers, next the Jovian messengers, and lastly the smithery of Vulcan, he would come to the seats of the greater deities, who filled up the time they had to spare from earthly amours and “pickles” of various names, with devouring ambrosia, making themselves drunken with nectar, and snuffing the grateful ascending smoke of burnt sacrifices.

Moses did not essay to teach the Israelites physics or cosmogony, which they must have failed to comprehend. So, in the language of child-thought, he speaks to them thus, of the visible sky: “And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so. And God called the firmament heaven.” Yet it was in this firmament, and beneath the upper floods of

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