almost superfluous to add, that of those three great epic bards of the moderns-Ariosto, Camoens, Tasso—the palm of excellence is, in my estimation, due to the second."*

No competent judge who has examined the poem, even through the medium of a good translation, such as the Germans, French, and Italians possess in their respective languages, can deny this, or indeed will have any disposition to do so. Is it not to be regretted, then, that we have not a good translation in English? Of no other great work cau the same be said. No other modern language contains more or better translations than the English. In short the Lusiad is the only great production of human genius that has survived the ravages of time, or that may be found in any other dialect, of which the Anglo-Saxon does not possess a reliable version. Nor does this exception exist because English poets are incapable of doing justice to Camoeng. There is no such obstacle in the way ; nor has there been for the last century. The real cause is, that the subject of the Lusiad is the Discovery of India, and the establishment of an Eastern empire by Portuguese—an empire which has since become British. It is not strange that the English should not have any great relish for a poem which, however noble, grand and interesting in itself, giver all the glory of European conquest and civilization in India to the enterprising spirit, intelligence, and bravery of a people, whose language is still spoken throughout the whole of Hindostan, and to a much larger extent than their own. Our British kinsmen are as liberal and cosmopolitan in feeling as any other people in the world ; but we should assume them to be more than human, did we expect them to admire, as its intrinsic merits deserve, a poem, every line of which is more or less suggestive of a comparison, by no ineans flattering, between Portuguese and British domination in the East. But it is otherwise with the people of this country, who have no prejudices in regard to India more than the Germans or Italians, but much less than the French, and who read more of the best English books than the English themselves.

Why, then, not have an American translation ? Our poets are fully competent to do justice, not only to the great epic, but also

Schlegel's Ilist. of Literature, pp. 254–255.

to the illtir's lyrics, of which it is locate: truly sail, that they possess "all th: wracaminte Charing simplicity of the Grecian musc." Lord Svanforslauntuk trauslation, is all we possess of th:1st Cl!..1!4, (U! /1.1.5, 3.adrigals and sunnets, which, in alicioni lu their nativi

..!!! *-, leally ill puthus, are enrich wili ishlarini...TR Dund letrarch. .I liritilul version(1:lily logo well received. Either Bryant or Longlili:coil drillkruie Lusiu suas to rin dicitie the fame of (':11:0e his ils il l'llle oppone : while the author of " Ilonman spare tim: Trec" (wird s."(!!fur lile (?!ursons an American popularity

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The History - England, imtil the period of the Imerican Revolution, is the history PDTOW!!) :{'estora. unhentic American Pristory begins with the distry and early settlement of our fountry, in the intervenirurios liow dark would be the last, ha:2 ven bitirical records i la borond the seas, to Tell 114 what, and wh:') oi!! :l?!('Contri's Wor, and by what steps they lil 1.000m Thacivilia, 1:1 in ny in:tances, the learned and polished! mil fund the sercu nation. Unlike the history of all other countries, which (CTS froin darkness and vlim twilight into clay, that com preciezi once opens into full light in a period of civilization. The arts of printing and of navimation, coeval with the mall of a system which had held Mankind in Bral, its well as civilingen had! dawned upon the Worll before the Western ('uiin cd its broad expanse as : new theatre for enterpriseil ambiti", and an asylum for those who had become wearied with religious intolerance and persicution.

Our annals olu 1104. leail us back to in obscure period and savage lineage? ; but leaving the great-hearted, enlightened men, who feared not to encounter the hardsliips of it wilderness, and the ferocity of savage foes, to work with their hands and their heads to cultivate the soil, and to establish wise laws, we will go

to their and our fatherland and learn who were our British ancestors, and what, at a remote period, was the condition of the people from whom we claim descent. We cannot detach our views of England, from some consideration of the other portions of Great Britain. Scotland and Ireland, now integral parts of the British Empire, have ever, in their annals, been inseparably interwoven with English history.

The traveller, in Britain, meets with occasional relics of Roman architecture—in ancient walls and fortifications-enough to tell the story of Roman conquest, and yet so few and insignificant as to attest the fact, that Britain was to Rome but a trifling acquisition. Indeed, it appears that we have little reason to be proud of the character which the British barbarians maintained among the cultivated Byzantians and the polished Franks, who, according to ancient historians, regarded them with a kind of superstitious terror, as scarcely human in their characteristics. It is believed that St. Paul visited Britain, and introduced Christianity among the Druidical worshippers of the sanguinary Woden. On the conquest of this island, by the Anglo-Saxons, the name England first appears in history. Intercourse with other nations, civilization, and the spread of Christianity, followed in the train of this conquest.

In the ninth century, another branch of the Teutonic race, from the north of Europe, came down upon the coast of England, and fierce conflicts of the Danes and Anglo-Saxons were continued for a long course of time; the latter suffering from their invaders the same outrages which, in former ages, their race had inflicted upon the conquered Celts. But the Danes and Anglo-Saxons, in England, at length became one people ; learning and religion began to revive; then came the battle of Ilastings, the crowning event of the Norman conquest, destined to change the manners, language, customs and laws of England. Scott, in luis Ivanhoe, takes the period of Richard I., "affording," as he says, “a striking contrast betwixt the Saxons, loy whom the soil was cultivated, and the Normans, who still reigned in it as conquerors, reluctant to mix with the vanquished, or acknowledge themselves of the same stock.” In the first page of this brilliant work, we find an explanation of the internal state of England at this period, which gives a graphic picture of Saxon and Norman life, and in the dialogue of the Saxon Gurth, the swinc herd of the Norman VOL. II.-90. III.


C'estrie, with th: j... 1 Wäin..., ilie shiterol hatred of the conquerent this is, is espiral with the peculiar power of Sint:

FAB:ly tl. (nutiest: Elishi semel no longer to exist as it 1.21, sentirely Wirt1!!4.5 sullojupitel lig their powerful and ST 10:151.14 "The tillenii anil virturs of the first ris Ir! ki," Macallay: "We al curse to England. The !:,'.', in: of the spotli verilir salvation." King Joh!, it weak aud vaccillating reli, licing defeated abroad, was cumi :: bome to yield to liis bars and sign a bill of rights, this JI147"y (7:11:, which has ever since been regarded as the bulwark of Engli liberty. "llere," says Vacaulay, "commences the history of this English nation." The distinctions of races 11:)w begal tu ilisapp'wir for a long time it had been considered by tlie pro Morinan it disgrace to be called an Englishman, buí al century 121.'T theo clien, endants of these men were proud to be calle 1 Englis!:.

It is not our purpose to dwe! upon English history previous to the reign cit the Simaris; we shall brielly pass over the events which proceel the period of the seventeenth century. The brilJiant reign of Elizabeth, the last of the Tudors, marks a distinguished cpoch in the amals of the world. Creat lights shone forth in the horizons of letters-English litcrature, at this period, assumed a dignity and importance which no succeeding age has eclipsed. The character of the great queen stands out in bold relief ;--a sovereign whu governed at home, and made her kingdom powerful abroail. It was the age of Spenser, Shakespeare, and “rare Ben Johnson," of good Roger Ischam, the “ gallant Sir Philip) Sydney," the learned and philosophical IIooker, and of the suggestive Beaumont anul Fletcher--the two latter immortalized by the impuls given bos their writings to the genius of others. To Sir Walter Raleigh, distinguished alike in literature and enterprise, our

· Old Dominion" Siate owes its name, given "in honor of the Virgin Queen," anlits origin as a colony. Lady Elizabeth Carew (or Carey) terhed, in 1613, a "learned, virtuous, and truly noble lady," wrote tragedies in imitation of the Greek poets. The great queen, bersell, was learned, and wrote well, both prose and poetry; in verses upon “my own feelings," she touchingly alludes to the restraint she is ever cbliged to exercise over her emotions. "mume gentler passions slide into my mind,"

I am soft and made of melting snow.” The lion-hearted queen, “ the woman-king," as Elizabeth has been called, had yet a woman's heart, and was moved by “gentler passions”—yet the circumstances of her condition turned the “melting snow to ice, and the “gentler passions" became lost when absorbed by the indomitable obstinacy and ambition of ler nature.

The translation of the Bible, which lad been attempted by Wickliffe, was continued by Tindale, Miles Coverdale, Jolin Rogers and Cranmer. IIenry VIII. directed that the Bible should be read in every parish church in England, commanding the bishops to take care to see that this order was observed in their several jurisdictions. To James I., weak and contemptible though he was in many respects, belongs the honor of directing the great work of translating our present English Bible, which, under the charge of many of the most learned men of both the Scotch and English church, was carried forward to a most successful termination, Dr. Adam Clarke says: “They have not only made a standard translation, but have made this translation the standard of our language."

As we enter the seventeenth century, let us pause to consider the view presented by the kingdom so long governed by Elizabeth, with a strong and firm grasp, and scck to detect the latent causes of the civil wars and revolutions which distinguish the annals of her successors, the unfortunate Stuarts. It is not solely to the folly and imbecility of the son of Mary Stuart; the tyranny and unlawful exactions of her grandson, the first Charles ; the licentiousness and outrages upon the laws of morality and decency of the second Charles; or the treachery and double-dealing of his brother, James II., that we may a tribute the disturbances which caused the bloody death of one of the Stuarts, and the overthrow and final expulsion of the last of that unfortunate dynasty. In the history and developement of the human mind, the time has come for the germination of those principles of civil and religious liberty, which had becn disseminated at the Reformation, and by the labors of suc'ecceling' philosophers, metaphysicians and divines. Even Elizabeth had met with rebuffs from parliament, when exceeding certain prescribed bounds, but with great sagacity, when she felt the check-rein, she stopped, and gracefully thanking her parliament for their wise caution, publicly congratulated herself that she had such prudent counselors.

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