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tage of it to engage in a new war against the Sultan, while the latter, supported by England, thirsted for revenge. The Turks were defeated in a terrible battle at Nezib. The army was destroyed and the fleet had been delivered by treachery to Mehemet Ali, and was now cruising near Alexandria in company with the Egyptian fleet.
By the death of Mahmoud, immediately after the present Sultan, Abdoul Mejdid, ascended the throne, and it was hoped that peace would be established, as the young Sultan was less obstinate than his father. England, Austria and Prussia, fearing to leave Turkey to the protection of Russia, formed an alliance to support the former. From this alliance, France was omitted. The Pacha refused the terms offered to him by the allies. He broke out into fury, exclaiming : "Vallalı-billah-billah, (by the Almighty God) I will not surrender a foot of land which I possess, and should they declare war against me, I will overturn the empire and bury myself beneath its ruins." The wooden walls of England, however, soon brought him to his senses. The British fleet assailed his fortresses on the coast, and cut off the communication between Syria and Egypt. Jean D'Acre and Beyrout, and other strongholds fell in succession, and the French, notwithstanding their superior fleet in the Mediterranean not sustaining the Pacha, owing to the determination of Louis Philippe to cement a friendship with England, Mehemet Ali was compelled to accept the terms proposed by Guizot, on the part of France, and adopted by the allies : 1. That the straits of the Bosphorus and Dardanelles should be closed against ships of war of all nations without distinction. 2. That on condition of paying the Porte one-fourth of the revenue, the Pachalic of Egypt, in hereditary right, should be secured to Mehemet Ali and his descendants, as the va'ssal of the Sultan. 3. That guarantees should be given by Turkey for: ameliorating the Christian inhabitants of Syria.
One of the conditions of the peace was, the restoration to the Sultan of his flect, which consisted of nine ships of the line, eleven frigates, and four brigs. This treaty being concluded, a convention was signed by the whole allied powers and France, which was thus taken into the European clonfederacy of nations again. The portion of it which afterwards became of great importance was " that the straits of the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles in conformity with the ancient
usage of the Ottoman empire, shall remain permanently closed against all foreign vessels of war as long as the Ottoman Porte shall enjoy peace." This appeared to be a great victory, but it was deceptive, for it in reality made the Black Sea an inland inaccessible Russian lake. The flects of all the western powers were shut out, while that of Russia, numbering eighteen line of battle ships, was left in possession, manned with gunners whose skill England afterwards experienced on the ramparts of the Malakoff and the Redan. Against this fine navy and the impregnable bastions of Sebastopol, Turkey had the ill-fortified ports of the Bosphorus, with a few sail of the line badly manned, so little foresight did the western powers cvince. The war of 1854 was undertaken by the allies to undo the treaty, which was the fruit of the victories of Beyrout and Acre, in 1841–to open the Euxine to foreign vessels of war, and to terminate the fatal supreinacy of Russia in its waters, but the results of it are so well known, that it would be superfluous to refer to them at any length in this lasty sketch, already grown much longer than we had intended it should be.
ART. VII.—1. The Antigone of Sophocles. With Notes, for the use
of Colleges in the United States. By TheODORE D. WOOLSEY, President of Yale College. Boston and Cambridge: James
Munroe & Co. 2. Æschylus ex Novissima Recensione. FREDRICI A. Paley. Accessit
verborum quæ praecipue notanda sunt et nominun index. New
York: Harper & Brothers. 3. Euripides ex Recensione. FREDRICI A. PALEY. Accessit et nomi
num index. New York: Harper & Brothers.
We are well aware of the wide-spread prejudice existing amongst the great mass of our people against classical studies. No nation in the world sets a higher value upon cducation in one sense than ours; a fact that is daily attested quite as strongly by the shifts, sacrifices, and labors, which many of the poorest young men and maidens in the cominunity will cheerfully undergo in order to acquire this cducation, as by the great attention which it has received from the several State legislatures. Every political system has its weak points, and we may not always be
VOL, II.-XO. III.
abic. 1., bill or clo:yt' were ruil of the criticisiis passed by forviin.Ps 11:11 50!!: (il vill }?!lic institutions and our private mums : : We can always it will an honoralile pride tu 0!!!'1*:*:!!!!...Sc!cul :!! Opili cucaiion, its a lotiy and onlin!!???? of 191.!!.: ( )!' self-moti??int. It is it. I. : 1.3" (Hi!!!! ...)! !... is on Europe, such as i !!!: ;* !!!!! L:varia. 1o:"1p Pinililin...
He'ils of follie clucation als), !!] 47:Turi: l'arcial Sc!!!s lave, since the days of kili werial mas vícting die iubkur classes of
/:!, reali neclucational instrumenillis in ;..:: :?),i", il polit?! ?plicativa ani pracjeljini!.“, viii vill olii, 1.!!!.. ili liligorica iliat these CM!!... ;-,0".1!3 :3.72 ">! i ! v pllllie tyr:ummy or of privat, liv!!:!:) 1:11 Bu 1.40; 1;.!!(!T'Solli'siis origin to the Wis:"?11'! ; ' . j , ng fir the benefit DE:;.1.1:15 !!!. ri'!.
:: :: 1:18:171, ... 11.117; in I.:.:!1:.1,vclyed olile din partici!, !!!!**: 117 iulie (1.35 i!!!'s lucen kept rer (!: in viit: 13" WE'Lilli':lui iiiural that ilji ; :::!1!1 1. n. (:;-;' li'll 1:1!!!!,3 juin Cincountering the variis vita": Grill.i's jir i 1.v!ilip: 'sition, me'w freeHivil. Cal : '
WTH. TH. Hins v konkle, which would is sit lily
4.1 pply the necessities in OVO!!!C!!! (!i*::ches thistler's daily life, naturuly a bit likesi putem in illis clueational market; cul, oven when the golkral progr's an increased prosperity of ihe country ha, ta great extent, unllit this plea oi' necessity, the impress remained stamped upon our educational system, being imprinteil afresh anı evin more deeply loy the desire of accumulasing' wealth—an object for which, we suspect, education is much more frequently valueil am 11.791, than for its own sakı, as the great means of elevating', enlightening, and ennobling man's nuental and spiritual nature.
Let us not be supposed for i inoinent to undervalue the practical, useful character of thaí spisiem of education, which has been the chief means, under Providence, of securing our freedom and promoting our prosperity. On the contrary, we derive a peculiar and proud feeling of satisfaction from the superiority which, through the developement given by this system to natural genius, we have attained over other nations, in almost every department
of applied science and mechanical ingenuity. But we do desire to see the intellectual aspirants and educational views of our people liberalized and clevated, so that they may no longer look upon knowledge merely as a stopping-stone to wealth and an incentive to the worship of that foul Fetish--the base god of so much base idolatry—“ sule"(!$s in life." Moreover, we must confess that we desire to see our (oluntry take it position in the universe of literature and learning of equal digrily with its political status ainong the nations of the carth. We have made some long strides in this direction, and indeed in aut il few points of intellectual culture have nearly attained the goal; but in others, and inore especially in the departments of high classical scholarship, philological research, um critical acquaintance with the languages and literatures of amtiquity; 11:10 - very much, alas! remains still to lie will, * Tip stail 1961 poillse ili preso il to discuss the value of sound, casa kw!, its ve title it for yra the majority o Oll!" 1:"iber's long lan ilgilets lo prove
We had originally 103 in maki:01 Fligresijoil: in illis article for an iinproved system of classic clucation. Loni all'e obligril, ly want of pace to defer them. Is properl: (OMRC1, lowerir, with the subject of an Ittic Poet, let 114 print ont 1;;!1:111:10.1 il-urility oi piting the Ilomeric poems into the hands of young -4110enis, W.01.: 1981 j:l- entered on the study of (reek. This practic. in Villcralim rol WT0.4 : 10101 mor ridiculous. inileeil, than is well in co!lence teaching our chilien Engli-li from the - Facrie Queen“ of spoel.:. 01 (hillicrbs - Troilus atid ('9-dm." This tanza is a very spaliel beitilil 0.1%, bui vit the style of 1.:n:Ng would Imrdly form a good movlel tool porco!it pocity or sprch :
• In as the newe
And yet it is infinitely wore like the language of Byron an 1 Bryant, Wordsworth and Whittier, than the olil lonie vlialect of Ilomer is to the pure, polished attic of Sophocles. If the Greek language is to be taught properly and perfectly, let the study of the dialectic peculiarities of ancient forms and of the mongrel corruptions of modern Romaic be postponed, till the pupil is able to read and to compose with ease in pure Attic Greek, the finest and most philosophical of all languages, dead or living, escopt one --The Sanskrit.
to them the great worth and practical availability of the study of the languages of Greece and Rome, even if regarded only as an instrument of clucation and mental training. For our present purpose it is enough to recal and record the fact, that the progress of the literary reputation of Germany and England may be measured very accurately by the advances made in classical, and more particularly in (reek scholarship. Although the names of many illustrious scholars stand vut in bold relief upon the pages of European history, at a period when the language and literature of Greece at least had as vet attracted comparatively little attention, it remained for last three quarters of a century to assign its due place of honor to the study of Greek ; and surely we need not wait to prove that no previous era of the liistory of Germany and England had ever been so generally and strongly marked by all the characteristics of literary elevation and refinement, as that which has given birth to Brunck and Bothie, llermann and Dindorf, Wunder and Welcker, Schafer and Schneider, Erfurdt and Böckh, in the fatherland of scholarship and scholars, and to l'orson, and Musgrave, and Gaisforul, Elmsley and Monk, and Paley, Jelf, and Donaldson, and Liddell, cum multis aliis, in our own fatherland. And here let us remark that, while we have selected those names, without method or order, and simply currente calamo, at random recollection, it is by no means an insignificant circumstance, that almost every one of those illustrious scholars evinced a high appreciation of the works of Sophocles above all the other poetic writers of ancient Greece. Such a fact would in itself lie suflicient to lead us to look for more than ordinary beauty, purity of style, and cleration of sentiment in his dramas. Vor will such an expectation prove deceptive to the student, who shall seek an intimate acquaintance with the prince of Creek dramatic poets : for we willingly acknowledge the justice of his country's verdiet, which awarıled to Sophocles the palm of superiority alike over his older and his younger rival. Isehylus, indeed, may surpass him in boldness of imagery and grandeur of style ; and rightfully retain the respect and admiration of his own and after ages as the virtual creator of attic tragedy ; for in the language of Schlegel, “She sprang in full panoply from his head as did Pallas from the head of Jupiter.” In the singular strangeness of his imagery and expressions, Eschylus has aptly been compared to