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had been court musician and composer for two years. This question of authenticity has been discussed under The Faithful Shepherdess, q. v.

The setting is a simple air. Each of the six trochaic tetrameters in a stanza is set to a phrase of music, two measures long and regular in rhythm; except in the case of the first tetrameter, which covers four measures of music, in irregular rhythm. The air is in the minor tonality, very slow, and filled with the melancholy spirit demanded by the words.

The Loyal Subject, 1618. An Ancient and four soldiers appear as peddlers in Act 111, sc. 5; each sings a song of his wares. We have the music for the song of the third soldier, who cries Honesty as his ware.

Will ye buy any Honesty, come away,
I sell it openly by day,
I bring no forced light, nor no candle
To cozen ye; come buy and handle.
This will shew the great man good,
The Tradesman where he swears and lyes,
Each Lady of a noble bloud,
The City dame to rule her eyes:
Ye are rich men now: come buy, and then

I'le make ye richer, honest men. The setting by Dr. John Wilson, published in Cheerfull Ayres, p. 4, was composed either for the original production, 1618, or for the revival of 1633.49 'See the Faithful Shepherdess for the authenticity of the setting.

The air is very elaborate; it almost defies analysis because of its extreme irregularity in form and rhythm. In the original printed form there are eighteen bars; there should be twenty-eight bars.50 The air is in aria parlante style, and the tonality shifts constantly from major to minor. Indeed the musical effect is almost chaos to a modern ear, unless one listens carefully for the

48 Grove, V, 530.

4* Performed by the King's Players, at Court, December 10, 1633. Murray, II, 177.

50 There are many mistakes and omissions in the music of Cheerfull Ayres. In his Introduction Dr. Wilson apologizes for this and explains that the printers had never tried to print music before.

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A look that's fastened to the ground, A tongue chained up without a sound.

words. Then the carefully planned accentuation of the important syllables becomes apparent and gives a coherence to the musical maze.

Women Pleased, ca. 1620. Lopez is jealous of his wife and suspects her of infidelity. In Act III, sc. 4, he returns home late at night and finds her sitting up fully dressed, but asleep. She fell asleep waiting for a lover, but Lopez thinks she was waiting for him. He repents his jealous suspicions, and softly sings this song to her:

Oh fair sweet face, Oh eyes celestial bright,
Twin stars in heaven, that now adorn the night;
Oh fruitful Lips, where Cherries ever grow,
And Damask cheeks, where all sweet beauties blow;
Oh thou, from head to foot divinely fair,
Cupid's most cunning Nets made of that hair,
And as he weaves himself for curious eyes,
Oh me, Oh me, I am caught myself, he cries:
Sweet rest about thee, sweet and golden sleep,
Soft peaceful thoughts, your hourly watches keep,
Whilst I in wonder sing this sacrifice

To beauty sacred, and those Angel-eyes. A setting for this song, by an unknown composer, is preserved in a Ms. of about 1620, contemporary with the play.51 Contemporaneity is our only argument for the authenticity of the setting, but in this case it seems a strong argument. The air is rather elaborate, in a style bordering on the aria parlante, yet more flowing and smooth than most airs in that style. In fact, but for certain rhythmical irregularities it might almost pass for an aria from a typical old Italian opera.

The Pilgrim, 1621-22. Alinda, in telling Roderigo's fortune in Act iv, sc. 2, says to him: Alinda: I'll sing ye a fine song, Sir.

He called down his merry men all,

61 British Museum Egerton MS. 2013 f12b. It is possible, and, judging from the styles, indeed likely that this air is by John Hilton. Perhaps it is one of his lute songs. We have already seen that one of the songs in this same Ms. is Hilton's "Hence all you vain delights” from The Nice Valor, Act nii, sc. 1.

By one, by two, by three;
William would fain have been the first,
But now the last is he.

Rod:

This is the meer Chronicle of my mishaps.

Alinda's song is the fourteenth stanza of the ballad “The Shepherd's Daughter," which has already been discussed.

In this discussion we have seen that one-third of the pieces preserved are popular ballad tunes, and that two-thirds are airs by trained composers. Fletcher has put five of the six ballad tunes in the mouths of a gypsy, a cook, a maid, and several other servants who sing for their own amusement. Such people would sing ballads in real life. Thus the music is thoroughly suited to the characters who sing it. On the other hand, nine of the twelve airs by composers are sung by people of higher rank, the God of the River, a lord, a courtier, a gentleman, or servants singing for their masters, not for themselves. So would it be in real life. The other three airs are sung by beggars. Thus most of the airs, like the ballads, are in keeping with the characters who sing them or have them sung. Moreover, all the songs have a definite connection with the action of the plays. Hence we are justified in concluding that Fletcher uses music not as a mere incidental ornament, but as a definite device to create or intensify the atmosphere desired in the scene.

Converse College.

THE SHOEMAKERS' HOLIDAY AND ROMEO AND JULIET

BY ROBERT ADGER LAW

The Shoemakers' Holiday, composed by Thomas Dekker in the early part of 1599, has for its main source Thomas Deloney's collection of tales, The Gentle Craft (1597). The structure of the play falls readily into three parts. Its first plot has to do with Simon Eyre, the shoemaker of Tower Street, and his rise to be Lord Mayor of London; its second, with the romantic courtship of Rose, daughter of Eyre’s immediate predecessor as Lord Mayor, by Lacy, really nephew of the Earl of Lincoln, but disguised as Hans, a Dutch shoemaker in Eyre's employ; its third, with the separation by war of Ralph, another shoemaker employed by Eyre, and Jane, his bride, together with the false report of Ralph's death and Jane's consequent preparation for a second wedding, which is interrupted by the reappearance of Ralph in the flesh. That all three of these plots are founded primarily on stories found in Deloney's book has been clearly brought out by Professor A. F. Lange. Deloney's tale of " Simon Eyre” furnishes practically all details for the main plot, and several incidents of the RalphJane story, as well. His first tale, "Saint Hugh," inspired a few lines, but his second tale, “Crispine and Crispianus," contains the complete outline of the Lacy-Rose romance. More specifically as to the two love plots, the Simon Eyre story as given by Deloney includes a Dutch shoemaker named Hans, and a wedding interrupted by the unlooked-for entrance of the bridegroom's lawful wife. Then the story of “ Crispine and Crispianus" tells of two princes disguised as shoemakers, how one is drafted for the wars in France, and how his brother wins the heart and hand of Ursula, the Emperor's daughter, despite his shoemaker's garb, and is afterwards forgiven and reconciled to his father-in-law. But one looks in vain through Deloney for a figure corresponding to Master Hammon to complete the triangle in each story. His suit of Rose,

2

2

1 For the Lord Admiral's Players; cf. Lange in Gayley's Representative English Comedies, Vol. III (1914), p. 4. * 2 In both his edition of The Gentle Craft, Palæstra, No. 18 (1903), and his subsequent edition of The Shoemakers' Holiday, Gayley's Rep. Eng. Com., Vol. III.

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