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tydinges, and sumtyme perverse concell commythe and goethe by reason therof. Allso to the buttrey dore ther be xij. sundrye keys, in xij. mens handes, wherin symythe to be small husbandrye. Nowe is the tyme of the yere when provysion was wont to be made of lyng, haberdens, and of other salt store, and allso of ther wynter vesturys [to] theyr bodyes and to ther beddis, and for fuell to ther cellys, wherin I tarye tyll I may knowe your mastershippis pleasure therein. I thinke, under correctyon of your mastershipe, that hit were very necessary to remove the ij. lay broders from the buttery, and sett ij. temporall persons ther in that rome, and lykewyse yn the kychine, for in those ij. officys lye the waste of the howse. In the beginnynge of Auguste laste paste, my lorde of Caunterburye sent for ij. monkes her, Rochester and Rawlyns. His lordshipe sent Rochester home again, but he kepithe Rawlyns styll with hym, and I understand he hathe chaungid his habytt to seculer prestes clothing, and eatyth fleshe. I know that summe of them, and I thinke that dyverse moo of them, wold be glad to be lycencyde to the same. Oon lay brother apostata, late of the ile of Axalme,” as he said, being syckeyn the greate syckenes, was secretlye withowt my knowlege receyvyde her into the cloyster, wher he dyed within iiij. days. Oon of the lay brothers kepte him in his siknes, and is now sike in the same greate sycknes. Goddis wyll be performyde. Wher the lorde Rede, late chife justyce of the comon place, hath her foundid a chantrye of viiji yerly for terme of xxx. yeris, his chaplen dyed the first day of September, and ther is yet xiiij. yers to cum. Maister John Maydwell, comenly callyd the Scottysshe frere, hath bin hir with danne John Rochester, William Marshall and other than being present, and hath exhortyd him to the best, but they cowd fynde no good towardnes in him, but after an howres communicacyon they lefte him as they fownde him.

* The Charterhouse of Axholme will be mentioned further on.

Than I entretyd Rochester and iiij. or v. of the monkes to be contentyde to hyr him preche oon sermon amo [n]g them, oon day that weke, wherwith they were than contentyd; but on the next day, when they had spokyn with ther other broders, they sent me worde that I shuld not bryng him among them, for if I so dyd, they wold not hire him, by cause they harde tell of him that he prechide agaynst the honoryng of images and of sayntes, and that he was a blasphemor of saynctis. And I said that I mervayled moche of them, for ther can be no gretter heresie in any man, specyally in a relygius man, than to say that he can not preche the worde of God, nether will not hire hit prechid. And they say that they wyll reade ther doctors, and go no farder; and I tellyd them that suche doctours hathe made sum of ther compaynye to be strong traytours and traytorusly to suffer dethe. Now, sir, standing the case in the premisses as I have now wryttyne, I dare do nothing tyll I know sumwhat of your mastershipis pleasure. For I have lernyde of my felowe John Whalley, that your pleasure is that I shuld breke noone old ordir of the howse; but your commandement onys knowyne, I trust to endevor my self to folowe and accomplisshe hit, with suche diligence and discrecion as I am able, and as God will geve me grace, and as I thinke to aunswer to your mastership yn dred of your displeasure, as knoweth God, who ever ledde you from henceforth forwarde, as he hathe done hiderto, yn his holye spiryte, the comforte of our mooste christen and mooste catholike prince, the kynges highnes, and of all his noblemen, and all other his true subjectes. At the Charterhowse nexte to London, the v. day of September.

Your humble servant, JASP. FY LoLLE.

Sur, I have sowyde to the byll of proporcion a parchement contaynyng the names of the whole howshold of the Charterhouse, and by cause ye shall not mervell upon the ordyr of that byll, in the first lyne is set byfore every mans name that hath confessyd

hym selfe to be the kyngs trew man, ther is set a g. for good, and before the other a b. for badde.

In the secunde lyne ys sett the letter that standyth upon his cell dore. The thyrde lyne is the number of the persons.

X We have already seen several allusions to the intended visitations of the Universities, as connected with the visitation of the monasteries, for it is clear that the Universities were at this time looked upon and treated as at least in great part monastic establishments. The following letter from Dr. Layton affords us a kind of sample of what was done at Oxford. It is a curious picture of the state of learning at the moment when our island was about to participate with the continent in its restoration.

XXX.
DR. LAYTON TO CROMWELL.
[From MS. Cotton. Faustina C. v11. fol. 205.]

Pleasit your goodnes to be advertisyde that in Magdelen Colege we fowndestablisshede one lecture of divinitie, two of philosophie, one morale another naturale, and one of Laten tonge, well kept and diligently frequentede. To thes we have adjonede a lecture in the Greke, that is, the grammer in Greke perpetually to be rede there, and all the yewthe therunto to have confluence for ther principulles. In New Colege we have stablisshede two lecturres publique, one of Greke, another in Laten, and have made therfore for evermore an honeste salarie and stipende. In Allsowllen Colege we have in lyke maner stablesshede two lecturres, one of Greke, another in Laten, with a goode stipende and salarie therunto assignede for ever. In Corpus Christi Colege we fownde two lecturres stablesshede by the founder, one in Greke, another in Latten, publique for all men therunto to have concourse. We have further stablessede a lecture in Laten tonge, publique, in Marten Colege; and another in Qwenes Colege; and have assignede and made a sufficient stipende for either of thes for evermore. Bicause we fownde all other the colegeis not able in londes and revenewis to have within them lectures publique, as the other afore rehersede hathe, we have injoned the saide poire colegeis that they and evere of them shall frequent and have dayly concourse unto the saide lectures. Penam imposuimus to evere scoler within the universitie not heryng at the leste one of thes lectures, for that day that he shalbe absent from one of the saide lectures to be punissede in the losse of his commons for that day, the saide paine evere day tociensquociems absens fuerit, nisi concurrenti causa aliqua legitima, approbanda tamen per prepositum collegii sive aule. We have sett Dunce * in Bocardo, and have utterly banisshede hym Oxforde for ever, with all his blinde glosses, and is nowe made a comon servant to evere man, faste nailede up upon postes in all comon howses of easment: id quod oculis meis vidi. And the seconde tyme we came to New Colege, affter we hade declarede your injunctions, we fownde all the gret quadrant court full of the leiffes of Dunce, the wynde blowyng them into evere corner. And ther we fownde one Mr. Grenefelde, a gentilman of Bukynghamshire, getheryng up part of the saide bowke leiffes (as he saide) therwith to make hym sewelles or blawnsherres to kepe the dere within the woode, therby to have the better cry with his howndes. We have also, in the place of the canon lecture, jonede a civel lecture, to be rede in evere colege, hale, and in. We have further, in visitynge the religiouse studenttes,t emongyste all other injunctions adjoyned that none of them for no maner cause shall cum within any taverne, in, alhowse, or any other howse whatsoever hit be, within the towne and the suburbs of the same, upon payne onse so taken by day or by nyght to be sent imediatly home to his cloister whereas he was professede. Withoute doubte we here say this acte to be gretly lamentede of all the duble honeste women of the towne, and specially of ther laundres that now may not onse entre within the gaittes, and muche lesse within ther chambers, wherunto they werryght well accustomede. I doubt not but for this thyng onely the honeste matrones will sew unto yowe for a redresse. Other thynges moo wiche ys to tediouse and long to conceve by writyng we have done, wiche all I shall declare unto yowe at my cummyng. This Sonday by nyght we shall make an ende ; for all this day we repaire to colageis for the redresse of division and complaintt put unto us. To morowe by vij. of the cloke in the mornyng I wilbe in the chapitre howse at Abyngton, and I truste to bring yow the trewthe of evere thyng for that howse; and therof doubte ye not. On Wedinsday by nyght, at utermoste, I truste to be with yowe at Winchestre, Gode willyng, who sende yowe as goode helthe as your hert desierith. We fynde here all men applyng and glade to accomplisshe all thynges. From Oxforde, thys Sonday the xijth day of Septembre, by your moste assurede poire preste and servant, RYCHARDE LAYTON.

* Duns Scotus.

+ The religiouse studenttes were the students sent to the university with exhibitions from the monasteries. One of the visitorial injunctions, in allusion to this class of students, directs:—“Also that the abbot or president kyep and fynd in some universite one or two of his brethren, accordyng to the habilite and possessions of this house, which brethern, after they be lernyd in good and holly letters, when they retorne home, maye instruct and teache ther brethern and diligently preache the worde of God.”

To the ryght honorable Mr. Thomas Cromwell, cheffe secretarie to the kynges hyghnes.

The letter which follows appears to have been written about the same time as the preceding. The abbey of Rewley, or De regali loco, in the suburbs of Oxford, was founded by the will of Richard king of the Romans, brother of Henry III. The last abbot (the writer of this letter) was Nicholas Austen.

XXXI.
THE ABBOT OF REWLEY TO CROMWELL.
[From MS. Cotton. Cleop. E. Iv. fol. 269.]

Ryght honorable and my syngular good master, my dutye remembred, I humblye commend to yow, glad to here of youre helth,

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