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INDEX TO VOLUME LVIX.
.433 & 577
LETTERS OF JAMES RUSSELL Lowell.
LIFE IN THE SAGE-BRUSH LANDS OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA,
Spectator.... LUXURY. By Leslie Stephen..
601 139, 282, 426, 572, 712, 859
MARRIAGE IN EAST LONDON. By H. Dendy...
Macmillan's Magasine. MOSSES IN LITERATURE....
Chambers's Journal.. MOTHERS AND DAUGHTERS., By Mrs. Frederic Harrison. Nineteenth Century..
380 275 493
NERVES AND NERVOUSNESS..
OLD EDINBURGH INNS. By Alexander W. Stewart. ....Gentleman's Magazine.
Fortnightly Review . ORIGIN OF MANKIND, THE. By Professor Ludwig Büchner...Fortnightly Review..... OUR LADY OF Pootoo. By R.'S. Gundry.
PARKMAN AND HIS WORK, FRANCIS. By A. E. Bradley.......Macmillan's Magasine....
QUEEN AND HER First Prime MINISTER, THE. By Reginald
621 340 648
46 240 658 735 567
RAILWAY DEVELOPMENT AT HOME AND ABROAD. By J.
Macmillan's Magasine.. REALISM OF TO-Day. By Countess Cowper..
Nineteenth Century.. RECOLLECTIONS OF DR. JOHN BROWN..
..Leisure Hour...... RECOLLECTIONS OF THB COMMUNE OF Paris.
.. Blackwood's Magazine.... RECENT SCIENCE, By Prince Kropotkin..
.Nineteenth Century RELIGION AND MORALITY. By Count Leo Tolstoi.
...Contemporary Review. REMARKABLE APPLICATIONS OF ELECTRICITY
SCIENTIFIC PROBLEMS OF THE FUTURE. By Lieutenant-Colonel
.. Macmillan's Magazine
.. Macmillan's Magasine.
WHEN THE Night Falls. By a Son of the Marshes.
The purpose of this article is by no M. Boissier shows us, with great wealth means that of endeavoring to define of illustration and abundant evidence, wherein the essence of Christianity con- how the religious restoration inauguratsists, but merely to note certain char- ed by Augustus went on augmenting acteristics which history shows us, by during the first two centuries of our contrast, to have pertained to the es- era, and how the results of that movesence of that religion. What these ment in part promoted, as they in part characteristics are may, I think, be hindered, the progress of Christianity. learned by considering some of the re- A review, then, of such characterislations which arose between the early tics of pagan religions as were directly Church and the religions which, at its hurtful or helpful to the Christian coming, it found established in the Ro- Church, as well as of those which, by man Empire.
defect, served indirectly to help it, may Such an inquiry has been greatly lead us to the apprehension of charfacilitated by the labors of M. Gaston acters which pertained and pertain to Boissier (of the French Academy), whose the essence of that system. works * the present writer strongly rec- Modern society is the direct descendommends to all those who may be inter- ant and outcome of the pagan Roman ested in the question here considered. Empire. It is, therefore, the merits
and defects of the ancient Roman re* La Religion Romaine and La Fin du Pagan. ligion, modified as it grew to be by sucisme. Paris : Hachette et Cie.
cessive Eastern influences, which for NEW SERIES. — VoL, LIX., No. 1.
our present purpose have to be consid- were rather “ masters of the ceremoered.
nies” than inen endowed with a superThe early Romans were a serious, natural power of acting efficiently as inpractical, and prosaic people, who, in tercessors. spite of their bravery, were more given There
no dogmas. Men's to fear than hope, and dreaded, as well thoughts and beliefs were free, and as respected, the gods they scrupulously only external acts were demanded of worshipped. Among these were some them. Even as to the priests themextremely matter-of-fact deities, such as selves, though a certain gravity of deVaticanus, who caused the new-born meanor was expected of an augur or a infant to emit its first cry, and Fabu- pontiff, neither his morals nor his belinus to pronounce its first word. Îiefs were taken into account. Educa taught it to eat and Potina to The object of most ancient religions drink ; Cuba watched over its repose, was not to make men moral, but to obwhile four goddesses presided over its tain from powerful supernatural beings, first footsteps.
by performing acts (good or bad) which Of such divinities there could hardly pleased them, safety and succor for citibe separate histories or legends, and in- zens and their city. Morality was not deed, as we all know, Romans had not the business of religion, but of philosothat tendency to humanize their gods phy, and it was the special subject of which prevailed in Greece. Statues do the dominant philosophy of Rome. Renot appear to have existed in their tem- ligion was not moral, save that there ples till they began to imitate, first the was necessarily a certain goodness in Etrurians and then more distant peo- practices performed, not for any pleasples. But when any event took place ure in them, but to obtain advantages which was so remarkable as to seem to from fellow-citizens. The Roman systhem divine,” a name was given and tem was, in early days, a strict school a worship initiated. Thus the Roman of discipline, and co-existed with great gods mainly arose as consequences of simplicity of life. observation and analysis, and not The Greeks were greatly edified by through poetic enthusiasm.
the way in which religion was honored It might seem that the government and practised at Rome, by the order and of a people so timid and scrupulous as dignity of private life there, and by the regards the supernatural must have de- intensity of Roman patriotism. The veloped into a theocracy; and yet the titles of Jupiter were “greatest and very contrary took place. Powerful and best,” and Vesta was--as every one respected as the Roman religion was, it knows-a goddess of purity. was subject to, or rather incorporated For the popularity and continuance with, the state. There was no incom- of the Roman religion it was hardly less patibility between civil and sacerdotal useful to be free of such ridiculous and functions, and there was never any con- immoral legends as those of the Greek flict between the government and the mythology than to be devoid of dogma. pagan Church, because the members of Since Romans might think of the gods the various priesthoods were thoroughly as they pleased, they were more easily imbued with lay sentiments.
able to reconcile with older notions Religion consisted in external acts of and ancient practices, such new ideas as worship, which had to be carried out the advance of intellectual culture and with a nice precision, with proper atti- foreign influences from time to time tudes, due offerings, and correct for- gave rise to. The fact that the gods mulæ. Therefore the worshipper of were rather divine manifestations and the gods was often careful to have two deified abstractions than anything else, priests beside him when he prayed- made it easy to regard them as symbols one to dictate the words, while the of different attributes of one all-embracother followed them with his eyes on a book, so that no syllable should be acci- self unwittingly to anything exceeding his in. dentally omitted. * Thus the priests tention-as, for example, when offering wino,
not, by the omission of limiting words, to * On the other hand, the petitioner was very bind himself to sacrifice all the wine in his anxious not, by a verbal slip, to engage him. cellar.