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She had done her reluctant utmost in dered, as women always musi when a that lingering kiss-trying, against all man goes “back,” knowing that no man her instincts, for his very sake, to stir can cheat the statistics forever. So far him. She had not succeeded, and she as her happiness was concerned, it would could not but be grateful. She was no not matter, but her pity still followed leash-eater. But her pity for him was him heavily. monstrous a terrific, war-born thing, She came back into the little drawinga portent, too heavy a burden, almost room, put on her thick sweater, and to carry about the world.

passed into the dining-room. She had “ 'Good-by, Oswald,” she said. “Re eaten almost nothing, herself; she was member, I'm always here. I won't give faint and hungry. Almost defiantly, she you marchpane another time.

sought the larder and fetched back to “You dear," he murmured as he the dying fire the untouched savory and clasped her hand.

a glass of wine. After she had eaten and You're very fond of me, and I of drunk, she lighted a cigarette. It was you. And when you want to tell any many months since she had smoked, and one anything, you'd better tell me. For the first inhalations brought giddiness after what you've said, I shall under and a light intoxication. The close horistand. Most people wouldn't."

zons broadened and shifted. ... She “You think I'm mad," he said.

came back into a long-lost world where “No. Only such a complicated thing phrases float like motes in the sun, and as war must have infinitely complicated one can savor even one's own sorrow. results. It has, physically, God knows; Her pity for Oswald Hamlin became a why not morally? You're a very curious more tolerable thing She had wrestled case. I don't think you ought to go with the enemy for his soul, and in vain. back. But I take your word for it that She ached all over from the conflict, you've changed fundamentally; and of but she cherished her soreness, for it course there's an off chance you may be proved that she had fought-yes, even right. I don't believe it, for a moment. to that last terrible kiss. She knew how But nothing shocks me, and I feel, to scorn words as well as Oswald Hamsomehow, as though you were my oldest lin; and their controversy had not friend in this very old world.”

stopped with words. She was very calm. Calmness seemed Yet she came back to words in the end, to be the only expression her pity could inevitably. Slowly they shaped themfind. She tried once more.

“I don't selves in her mind, forgotten for years: see, myself, why any one should come out of Flanders the same person he went

All delicate days and pleasant, all spirits and in. It's the miracle of Nature—who

Far out with the foam of the present that never was a theorist, nor even a Liberal, sweeps to the surf of the past: as I make her out-that so many do. Where beyond the extreme sea-wall, and Write to me, won't you?” She nodded between the remote sea-gates, pleasantly at him.

Waste water washes, and tall ships founHe choked a little. “It's over for me, Millicent-but, thank Heaven! it isn't

and deep death waits. for you. I hope you'll have a long life They were marvellously comfortable to under Magdalen Tower.

her. won't!” His voice turned harsh at the And now she must go to bed. Lady last words, and his marred face looked Sayres penalized them with her heavy wholly grim and sinister—a war-made displeasure if they were late or weary. thing, like so many, these days. She was very cold, too, now that the fire

“We'll talk it all over again the next had burned out; but as she turned out time." She let these words follow him the lights she was grateful for coldness into the public hall.

as she had never been for warmth-most She knew she was hoping passionately grateful of all that the blood ran so slow that there would be no next time, though in her veins, that nowhere in her brain conscious of what it was that would, in or flesh, from head to foot, was the such a case, prevent. Indeed, she shud- tiniest rebellious flicker.

sorrows are cast


But you

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HE true lessons of a foreign ambassador at the Court of
tragedy are not to be Berlin.
found in the supreme At the time of the accession of Will-
moment when the iam II as King of Prussia and German
drama has reached the Emperor, on June 15, 1888, after the
climax of passion, but brief reign of Frederick III, the German

in the errors of judg- Empire had already taken on its definite ment or defiance of moral law that have form and was regarded as a firmly esmade it a tragedy.

tablished great power, which might or In attempting at this time an analysis might not become a menace to the rest of the sources of the Kaiser's


and of Europe according to the policies by the methods employed for its further de which its future might be determined. velopment, my purpose is to throw a The unity of the German states was new light, if possible, upon the present secure,


of Prussia was every, European situation by lifting a curtain, where felt among them, and the work of not upon the scene as it is set upon the Bismarck was complete. stage of contemporary action, but upon That the Empire was an achievement the evolution of the chief character of of superior military force on the part of the drama in the course of his prepara- Prussia, and in no sense a creation of the tion for the rôle which he has cast for German people, was universally underhimself.

stood. No one familiar with the history This process of development is pos

of Prussia doubted that its influence sibly more vivid to my mind, and cer would continue to be dominant in the tainly more impressive in my judgment, Empire. The Prussian philosophy of the from the fact that it was my lot to be in state had completely triumphed; and to Germany in the two most critical periods that philosophy, based on monarchical of the political evolution of the Empire. absolutism, the idea of parliamentary As a result, there is an inevitable concen control was known to be repugnant. The tration of thought, not merely upon the King of Prussia was by heredity the contrast between the two periods German Emperor, and no King of Prussia which may be roughly designated as had ever forgotten the traditions of the 1888-90 and 1908-14—but upon the House of Hohenzollern, which had adcauses that have connected them and vanced from a Suabian lordship to the that explain the transition from the eminence of empire by centuries of conearlier to the later period.

quest, annexation, and unscrupulous In these two periods my points of view diplomacy, seeking alliances wherever were different, and each had its peculiar additional power or prestige could be advantage. In the first period I saw obtained, and renouncing them whenWilliam II as his own people saw him, ever they became a burden or ceased to and intimacy with them disclosed the offer an advantage. estimate they placed upon him. In the Every intelligent German understood second period my personal contacts with this; but now that the strength and polithe Kaiser himself during more than cies of Prussia were at the service of the three years were more intimate and more Empire, the state that had long been the varied than usually fall to the lot of a common menace and often the hated


enemy had become the protector and Ministers would have been chosen with potential organizer of all, and the primi- reference to the will of the people as extive tribalism that had always charac- pressed in the Reichstag. The Emperor terized the Germans, that had attached would have reigned, but his Ministers them to their local princes, that had in would have governed. The highest ideals its time_effectively nullified the Holy of self-government might not have been Roman Empire of the German nation, swiftly realized, and certainly not immethat had embroiled them in internecine diately; for, as all German statesmen wars, and for centuries had made Ger and writers have agreed, the Germans man territory a prey to foreign conquest have not been bred to self-government. and hopeless division, was now merged They have always relied upon their in a larger tribalism. Germany had at princes as more or less paternal rulers, last become self-conscious as a nation, and they would think it presumptuous and the mutual hostility that had to dictate to their recognized superiors. doomed the German tribes to separatism But actual government always consists was now transformed into a general hos more in a spirit than in a form. Autoctility to all that is not German. No racy and democracy are theoretically longer a mere geographical expression, antithetical; but practically a ruler nomas for centuries it had been, Germany inally absolute may listen to the voice of had become through blood and iron the his people, while the head of a democracy victor over a common foe. Thenceforth, may exercise the will and display the as throughout German history the qualities of a Cæsar. stronger tribe had dominated over the For Germany strong central control weaker, so now Prussia, which had seemed to be essential, and the character evoked the soul of Deutschtum, had im of the Prussian monarchy opened a path posed upon it a superior will, and there toward absolutism in the future develarose from a united people the cry, opment of the Empire. There was, it Deutschland über Alles!

must not be forgotten, an Imperial ConThe economic advantages of the Em stitution. The whole future of Germany pire had become evident and immense. depended upon the interpretation of it. A great realm for ages divided by a tan Without changing an article, it could be gle of limited frontiers was now made administered liberally or autocratically; one. Exchanges had been promoted by for in all constitutional governments it the Zollverein, which had afforded a fore is the historic spirit that prevails. taste of the advantages of unity; but The point of conspicuous interest here now the walls of separation were entirely is the interpretation of the Imperial swept away. Central authority was Constitution that was actually made and clearing the ground of local impediments accepted, and to this must be added the to general industrial and commercial tendency to confirm or to reject it that prosperity. But, above all, the provin- has been developed during the present cial spirit of earlier times was vanishing, a universal emancipation of thitherto re Whoever will take in hand the Constricted energies was occurring. Ger stitution of the German Empire and many, unified, victorious, prosperous, read it merely as a document will be and aspiring, felt a sense of mighty surprised, if not already familiar with its strength and a keen impulse toward contents, at the façade of liberalism that wider expansion. Poverty was giving presents itself. way to wealth, frugality to luxury, and First of all, it is a written constituhumility to pride.

tion; which implies that it is, in effect, Before the Germany of 1888 two paths a definition and restriction of sovereign were open.

Had Frederick III, sur power so far as the prerogatives of govnamed the “Noble," continued to reign ernment are concerned. It begins with a decade, instead of only ninety-nine a list of independent sovereigns-kings days, the tendency in government would and grand dukes—the King of Prussia have been toward liberalism. More and heading the list and acting in the name more the Imperial Constitution would of the North German Confederation, have been interpreted in a liberal spirit. who “conclude an eternal alliance for


the protection of the territory of the only to the Emperor, who has the right Confederation and the rights of the of forcible execution in all the states. same, as well as for the promotion of It did not require very long for the the welfare of the German people.” It alert intelligence of William II to perneither renounces nor abrogates the ceive who, under this organic law, possovereign rights of the monarchs who sessed all the power in the Empire. form this new alliance. It confers a Armed with the prerogative of person“common citizenship” upon all Ger

upon all Ger- ally appointing and recalling every one mans and enumerates their rights. of real importance under the Imperial "Against foreign countries all Germans Constitution, and with the authority to shall have an equal claim upon the pro execute by force his own decrees and tection of the Empire.” The legislative ordinances, “this young man,” as Bispower of the Empire is conferred upon marck rather contemptuously called the Bundesrat and the Reichstag, a ma him, at the age of twenty-nine, ascended jority of the votes of both bodies being what he understood to be, in effect, the necessary and sufficient for the passage imperial throne, regardless of the preof a law. The King of Prussia

has mere tense that it was only the seat of a ly the "presidency” of the Confedera "presidency.” As soon as the death of tion, with the title of "German Em Frederick the Noble was announced, he peror.

promptly took possession of his entire Nothing in all this sounds in the least heritage, in the full consciousness that autocratic. On the contrary, all seems as King in Prussia he could extend the very liberal. The German Emperor is prerogatives of kingship over the entire not a monarch, except in Prussia. All Empire. the other confederated sovereigns are As a youth he had aroused the deep equally monarchs in their own realms. concern of his father. On the twelfth He is only a "president,primus inter anniversary of his son's birth, Frederick pares.

Whence, then, his autocratic III wrote in his diary: : power!

It is an occasion for fear when one thinks Ninety-nine one hundredths of the

of the hopes that rest from this time forward Imperial Constitution could be tran upon the head of that child, and what a scribed into the constitution of the most

great responsibility is incumbent upon us democratic federal state without serious toward our country for the direction of his criticism. The absolute authority which education, since considerations of family and the Imperial Constitution undoubtedly rank, the life of the Court of Berlin, and so confers upon the King of Prussia is in many other things render his education diffigeniously concealed under the most

cult. plausible camouflage.

The condition of Germany in the It is impossible here to enter upon a years that followed in no way dimindetailed exposition of this device, in ished the reasons for this solicitude. The which Bismarck believed he had tri return to Berlin of victorious armies, the umphed over parliamentarism, which he coronation of his grandfather, William bitterly opposed, and had rendered him- I, the universal exhilaration of newly self as Imperial Chancellor omnipotent unified Germany, the glory and the in the Empire under a "president” praise of Prussia, had all acted upon his whom he intended to be merely titular. sensitive nature like the excitement of a The whole structure of government in play, and yet it was palpable reality. the Empire pivots on the action of the All the prose of life seemed dull to him. Imperial Chancellor, as provided in Arti- As a young soldier he passed rapidly cles 15 to 17: The Chancellor is ap- through the different grades up to that of pointed by the Emperor, requires no general; but it was never forgotten by confirmation, and cannot be removed his comrades when at school in Bonn, or except by the Emperor. The Imperial in the army, that he was some day to be Chancellor alone can by his signature the head of that glorious Germany that give validity to the decrees and ordi had more than realized the dreams of the nances of the Emperor, and "thereby medieval time, when mailed knights led assumes responsibility for them”; but their armies over the Alps to be crowned

at Rome; and, most of all, the young without or within my realms, will wait prince himself never forgot it. All the upon my wishes and my behests.” Not realities with which he came in contact only this, but he felt it necessary to say were veiled in the glamour of a time to the new recruits: “You have sworn when it seemed that everything was pos- loyalty to me; that means that you are sible, and that a new and marvelous era now my soldiers, you have given yourhad just begun.

selves up to me body and soul; there is Of all those youthful impressions that for you but one enemy, and that is my had touched the imagination of the enemy. In view of the present agitayoung Kaiser the deepest was that of the tions it may come to pass that I shall victorious army which in his boyhood command you to shoot your own relahad returned from France. Of the three tives, brothers, yes, parents—which God rescripts with which he began his reign, forbid—but even then you must follow the first, on the day of his accession to my command without a murmur.' And, the throne, was addressed to the sol in saying this, he knew that he was apdiers. “The absolute and indestructible pealing to an instinct of personal fealty fidelity of the army," runs this first nowhere in the world so strong as that utterance of the young Emperor, ‘is bred into the nature of Germans through the heritage transmitted from father to the many centuries of obedience when son from generation to generation. . existence depended upon the feudal conWe are inseparably united. . . . We are secration of a vassal to his lord, who made for each other, I and the army, alone could afford protection to his life. and we shall remain closely attached Such an army cannot inquire into the whether God gives us peace or storm." causes, the laws, or the moralities of war.

This has been the keynote of the Mute and obedient, it marches where it Emperor's entire reign. The army, that is ordered to march, stands where it is was his first thought, for it was that ordered to stand, and falls, when it must which had created his imperial heritage, fall, in the faith that God will reward its it was that which could enable him to fidelity with eternal blessedness. read into the Imperial Constitution the The second thought of the new Emfull meaning of the Hohenzollern tradi peror on the day of his accession was of tions, and make the whole realm what the neglected little navy. Already his his ancestors had made Prussia, a patri- fancy had taken wings beyond the fronmonial estate to be transmitted by him tiers of the Empire, and led him to to future generations of his House. dream of its extension beyond the sea.

To William II the army was a dynas No German Emperor had ever thought tic possession. Was it the "nation in it worth while to address a rescript to arms," as Germans love to speak of it, the navy, but it was William's second that was in his mind? Perhaps, but not act. "Whoever knows the navy," he the nation controlled by the people's wrote, “is aware that every man is ready will. The oath of its allegiance is not to sacrifice his life for the German flag. taken to the Constitution, but person In grave moments we shall cerally to the Emperor. The Prussian tainly be united, and in fair or cloudy Constitution openly proclaims this, and days we shall always be ready to shed explicitly declares, “A swearing-in upon our blood to safeguard the honor of the the Constitution of the country does not German flag and the glory of our Gertake place.” As King of Prussia and as man Fatherland.” Emperor the Kaiser is the head and chief Having thus identified the army and of the Prussian and the Imperial army, the navy with himself as the two most to whom alone and without question powerful instruments of his purposes, it they owe obedience. He has, therefore, was not until the fourth day that he the legal right to say, as he has said, issued a rescript to the people. “The more people shelter themselves The eagerness with which the new behind catchwords and party considera- Emperor had addressed himself to the tions the more firmly and securely do I army and navy before issuing a general count upon my army, and the more con proclamation to the nation as a whole, fidently do I hope that my army, either joined with his reputation for impulsive

VOL. CXXXVI.—No. 816.-100

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