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were unstudied, while the occasional lapse into such peculiarities as as the English pronunciation of Latin, where the German was generally used, attracted unfavorable attention, and so did the unfamiliar sound of knowledge, with the accent on the o in the first sylsyllable, and some other less striking instances, but throughout there was marked evidence of the fact that English peculiarities are breaking down before the steady progress of all English-speaking people to one standard of good English common to all educated men and women and the surrender of those eccentricities of speech which seem almost inborn and invincible. The public schools, however, are the great and influential training schools, and as they enforce a better and higher standard of colorless purity of speech, the result will be seen at the universities, in the pulpit, at the bar and in that last and highest of all the forums of speech-making-parliament itself-where, as yet, the new school is only being slowly admitted. Part of the day's work was the distribution of prizes by the head master, and his brief address to each boy was marked by some strongly characteristic words, serving to show that no boy was to be praised for only gaining a prize, unless in doing so he had distinguished himself by real merit, and unless that merit was part of his whole school-work and life. The applause of the school, too, was given in very different proportions, and was plainly meant to show that the estimate of the school-boy companions of the prizeman was often strongly at variance with that of the judges who awarded the prizes, and as these judges were almost always men quite outside the school and its influence, there was a sort of public opinion that thus criticized their work, but in no way undid it or affected the validity of their judgment. A very large and lucrative field is opened to fellows and graduates of the universities who are either teaching in their own colleges or elsewhere, or studying in London, by this business of entrusting the examination for prizes in the public schools to men whose fitness is attested by their own success in similar contests on the greater stage of university honors, and no small part of the asting value of a public school prize is due to the fact that it is gained, not by the suffrages of the masters and teachers of the school itself, but by the strangers who have no interest and are subject to no influence that can affect the result of the work done by the men who are candidates for the prizes. The school-work
is kept quite by itself, and even there conduct, good or bad, is regulated by entirely other means, and a man's standing is in no wise made to depend upon his more or less diligent attention to mere rules of discipline or habits of behavior. The fact that whipping, in one form or other, is still maintained in the public schools, is proof enough that English school-boys are not al all exempt from ordinary failings of boys, but it certainly does seem a step in advance when scholarship and conduct have their own rewards and punishments.
The regular work of speech-day over, there was again an adjournment to the playing-grounds, and while the boys went to work quite methodically at their racket, cricket and foot-ball, the guests were gathered at a great table, where, after a simple, wholesome lunch, speeches were made, and the prosperity of the school and the good wishes for its success by its old friends and by its newest visitor were toasted with a good deal of enthusiasm, for teaching in England is now one of the learned professions, all the more honored, perhaps, because its rewards are of the slenderest and its honors of the fewest, but the head master of a public school is a man among men, and Haileybury fortunately has a master who feels the importance of the post he fills and holds his own bravely. Without pretending to rival the aristocratic splendor of Eton, the lesser glories of Harrow or the more modern fame of Rugby, Haileybury ranks with the great schools of a later day, such as Marlborough, Wellington, Cheltenham and other such useful institutions. With the enormous advance of education in the great ruling body of Englishmen now a days—the allpowerful middle class—the old schools were unable to meet the demand for good instruction, not so dear as it was to all but the comparatively small number on their foundations, and not so much bound up with the traditions that have grown up with their growth, and are often as strong as the real business of the school itself. Thus Eton and Harrow, without their excess of athletic sports, would almost cease to be great, and although they both turn out good scholars and men who do good work at the universities and in later life, yet there is a strong feeling that a boy who cannot sacrifice a good deal of time of his own and money of his father's to the traditions of the school, to cricket and boating and all the lesser sports, had better go elsewhere. And so without at all complaining or caring ever to reform it, Englishmen of different church faith or professions or views have quietly established new schools or reorganized old ones on plans that, both as to cost of living and instruction, suit their purposes and their wishes, and these schools are growing, but in no wise at the expense or to the prejudice of the old schools.
There is no notion in England that instruction is the better for being absolutely free, or that the less it costs the better it is. In England as in Germany, public schools are not synonymous as they are here with free schools, and on the continent and in England every man is called upon to pay, not in all cases a great deal or even the same sum, but always something toward the expense of the instruction of his children. In Germany the government gives largely and liberally to the expenses of public instruction, but the parent pays too. In England the cost is more often defrayed by old-established foundations and by prizes and scholarships as rewards for distinctions, but still men are made to feel that what is worth having is worth paying for, and they do pay for it too. Nearly all the new means of popular instruction, workingmen's colleges, technical schools, and other similar aids in the great advance made by the teaching class toward the untaught who urge the demand for education, have found imitation here, but one such, spoken of to me by an assistant master at a great English public school, is, I believe, still unknown here. This is instruction by correspondence; and it is best explained by the subjoined circular, in which its plan is set forth. In England it is feasible, because at the public schools and at the universities there are gathered together great numbers of men whose business is teaching. Here it is hardly practicable, because, up to this time, we have had no opportunity for intellectual centralization, and our large number of colleges and universities are all too weakly supplied with teaching power to be able to give any sufficient aid to work outside of the regular course of instruction. Still the subject is of sufficient interest to be referred to here, and an examination of the plan as set forth in the circular will explain its purpose and working for all immediate needs.
The system of instruction by correspondence, which has now been in operation for a year, has been found by experience sufficiently successful to render its continuance desira
More than one hundred women availed themselves of the assistance thus offered. Of these the teachers report that to those possessed of sufficient intelligence to define and grapple with the difficulties of the subject (even when they are unable to solve them), and sufficient application to carry out honestly and perseveringly the directions of their teachers, this system seems to afford valuable assistance. Where the success is more doubtful, the failure is probably oftenest due to the want of previous discipline in intellectual work. It is impossible for any one to derive the full benefit from teaching by correspondence, who is not already accustomed to some extent to serious study. For the future, the teachers will generally be prepared to advise their correspondents, after the first or second paper, whether they are likely to benefit by the course or not.
It may be well to impress upon all who may desire to avail themselves of the instruction thus offered :
1. That it does not claim to be more than an assistance in selfeducation.
2. That it should not be adopted as a method of learning the rudiments of a new language or science, unless the learner be prepared to make considerable efforts.
3. That it cannot be regarded as an adequate substitute for efficient oral teaching when that can be obtained.
The instruction is given by means of
(2) Papers of questions set from time to time, and the answers looked over and returned with comments:
(3) Solutions of difficulties met with by the student in the course of reading.
(Questions should be put by the students in as clear and concise a manner as possible.) The following is a list of the subjects and teachers for 1872, 1873: *1. English Literature : Rev. W. W. Skeat, Cambridge. C. W. Moule, Esq., Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. J. W. Hales, Esq., London. Rev. D. C. Tovey, Trinity College, Cambridge. T. N. Toller, Esq., Christ's College, Cambridge. [Candidates for instruction in English literature are requested
to inform the Secretary whether they are preparing for the Cambridge Women's Examination, or wish to study a particular author or period, e.g. Early English, the Elizabethan age, the age of Queen Anne, etc.]
*2. English History: Oscar Browning, Esq., Eton College, Windsor.
5. Greek : J. Peile, Esq., Christ's College, Cambridge. 4. Latin : Rev. A. Holmes, Clare College, Cambridge.
5. Geometry, Algebra and higher Mathematics : J. Stuart, Esq., Trinity College, Cambridge.
6. Arithmetic : W. H. H. Hudson, Esq., St. John's College, Cambridge.
*7. Logic : Rev. J. Venn, Petersfield House, Cambridge.
*8. Political Economy: H. Sidgwick, Esq., Trinity College, Cambridge.
H. S. Foxwell, Esq., St. John's College, Cambridge.
9. Geology: Rev. T. G. Bonney, St. John's College, Cambridge.
10. Botany: F. E. Kitchener, Esq., Rugby.
The work having been found to be more laborious than was anticipated, it is proposed to raise the fee for each year's course to £4. 45., except in the case of those engaged in, or preparing for, the profession of education, who will pay two guineas. A fund is in course of formation, from which further assistance in the payment of the fees can be obtained if necessary by application to the secretary. The right is reserved to each teacher of discontinuing the correspondence with any pupil, the fee being returned. The duration of the course will be somewhat lengthened, and will extend as far as possible over the three Cambridge terms; i. e, from the 14th of October to the end of May, with short intervals at the discretion of the teacher.
The correspondence will be carried on at fortnightly or monthly intervals, according to the nature of the subject.
RULES OF CAMBRIDGE LENDING LIBRARY. 1. Subscribers on the annual payment of £i are entitled to the loan of any of the books recommended by the syndicate for the
*The correspondence in these subjects will be carried on at monthly intervals.