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become altered and enlarged, and their attainments | though the species be one and single, there were approach closely to those of the same class in the not several pairs of this species placed separately most civilized countries. This corresponds with on the earth, and possibly under certain diversities what we before noticed as to certain changes taking of type, corresponding more or less with those of place in bodily configuration under similar circum- the dominant races which now exist? It will be stances. It is an example, moreover, of the vari- seen that this question is already in part answered ations to which every race of mankind is incident, in the one preceding it; and that the grounds of as well as the Negro, where the more essential argument in the two cases are closely analogous conditions of life are altered for long successive throughout. It is true that in the latter case periods of time; and as such is very instructive they are chiefly of a negative kind, and do not in relation to our subject.
admit of so determinate a conclusion. These variations, we are bound to add, are not never prove by any human evidence that it may of advancement alone, but in many cases mani- not have pleased the Creator to give origin to the festly of degradation from the standard of the par- race and its varieties in this particular manner. ticular race. As such we may probably regard The solution cannot be rendered other than one the Hottentots and Bushmen of Southern Africa ; of probability ; but we think the amount of probthe Esquimaux, Laplanders, and Samoyides of the ability attainable to be such as may fairly justify Arctic Circle ; the Fuegians, Papuas, and numer- the inference to which we come. ous other tribes scattered over the globe. This We are entitled, first, to ask the same question fact, indeed, applying alike to the mental and bod- here as before—Where is the limit to be placed ily organization, is one which binds itself closely to this multiplication of pairs, if intended to exand necessarily with all other parts of our argu- press the several types or varieties of man? Fis: ment. Those varying conditions of existence, cher, in his Synopsis Animalium, affirms the exwhich even in the same nation or community tend istence of seven forms or species, wholly distinct. to degrade and debase certain classes, do so on a Colonel Hamilton Smith, in the work named at larger scale, and with more lasting effect, where the head of this article, says that we must necesthe insulation from the original stock is inore sarily admit the Caucasian, Mongolian, and Negro, complete, and where the circumstances of life are as separate in origin, and though calling these yet more strongly contrasted, and continued for typical forms, he goes far towards asserting the longer periods of time.
distinction of species. The colonel fights for his What we have said will be readily understood triple type with zeal and skill; and we are ready as applying equally to the moral feelings and to admit, that if the separate types be confined to character of different races as to their intellectual three, he has rightly chosen them ; but we do not faculties. The denotation of unity of origin is see sufficient grounds for this limitation. Lookas strong in the one case as the other. However ing at the many varieties of mankind, and the modified in form and expression by education, the manner in which they are insensibly interblended, conditions of government and society, or the vari- we find no lines strong enough to form a limit to ous necessities of life, the emotions, the desires, the supposed multiplicity of pairs, though many the moral feelings of mankind, are essentially the sufficiently marked to furnish a basis for the divissame in all races and in all ages of the world. ion of races. We think the evidence of facts not We have neither room nor need for argument on likely ever to go beyond this, and that more exact this subject : all history and all personal experi- knowledge will tend further to confirm the belief ence concur as to the fact. Were we to cite any that all these, distinctions of races are secondary one instance in particular, it would be the faculty and subordinate to one single source of human life of laughter and tears—those expressions of feel- on the earth. ing common to all colors, races, and communities Of the arguments to this effect, beyond those of mankind, civilized or savage ; and which give already stated, the most important, undoubtedly, is proofs of identity, stronger than all reasoning, the analogy derived from all other species of ordoyou tu x#1110v. To our great poet— whose ganic life. We doubt whether unequivocal proof philosophy alone would have made him immortal, has ever been produced of the same species having even had it not been conveyed in immortal verse- even two primitive habitats on the surface of the we owe a line, which far more happily expresses earth. We have no means, indeed, of absolutely our meaning :
demonstrating the negative; and we must rest the
argument, therefore, on the general and very reOne touch of nature makes the uhole world kin.
markable fact, now recognized by naturalists, that It is this "one touch of nature" testified in tears, different species, whether animal or vegetablewhich decides the question of unity of species to whether terrestrial, aquatic, or atmospheric—had the common feeling of mankind as entirely as it originally definite seats and localities on the does to the observations of the naturalist, or the globe, whence their diffusion has been effected by reasonings of the philosopher.
accident or design, modified by their locomotive Though our limits have compelled us to curtail powers and several capacities for bearing changes this discussion in numerous particulars, we have of climate and place. There is now a geography pursued it sufficiently to show how much it gov- of animals and plants, as well as of mountains, erns the second question proposed, viz., Whether, rivers, and kingdoms. The Botanical Geography
of De Candolle, to which Humboldt and Brown fit his habitation to the climate, can prepare his food have so largely contributed, defines at least twenty by cookery, can provide artificial means of transbotanical provinces on the globe, each being the port. In the simple expression of these familiar centre of groups of species peculiar to itself in facts, common to no other animal with him, we origin. The Zoological provinces have hardly have the history of his distribution over the globe ; yet been so exactly denoted; but are manifestly and can conciliate this with the belief that he had subject to the same law of distribution, connected, his origin in one spot alone. We have adverted it may be, with some native adaptation of each to the deficiencies of history respecting the early species to the region where it had its origin. migrations of mankind, and their collection into The great importance of this discovery will at communities and nations; and we are obliged to once be obvious ; and not less so the extreme admit further, that we can in no satisfactory way interest of the facts in natural history, by which explain the peopling of the many remote isles of it has been established and verified. The sys- the ocean, seemingly inaccessible to man in the tematic division into provinces may undergo alter- ages to which such events must be referred. ations in effect of future revision, but the principle Still the difficulties of solution do not alter the is fixed ; and time can only bring fresh accession facts to be solved. The human race is actually of facts to this wonderful law of the primitive spread over the earth and the islands of the sea ; distribution of species.
single, as we have seen, in all that constitutes Few minds would have been hardy enough to the proper definition of a species. Such is the conceive all this à priori—to admit, for instance, nature of this distribution, that the difficulties are the likelihood of such facts as the insulated geol- not better obviated by supposing two, three, or ogy and botany of the Galapagos Isles or St. more centres of creation than one only. Helena ; or those extraordinary relations of typi- must, in contradiction to the analogy of all other cal form in adjoining regions, and on the same species, make the number incalculably great, to continents, which are observed even where the satisfy this method of solving a case, which, after species are distinct. It cannot be doubted that all, is reducible to probabilities perfectly conformgeological changes in the globe, and particularly able to our reason. A more momentous and the relative changes of sea and land, have been difficult question is that of the time involved in largely concerned in the present distribution of this early part of man's history, and requisite to organic life, by altering climate and separating explain his dispersion and multiplication on the genera and species connected primitively with globe. But this question applies itself equally to common centres. The researches of Professor all parts of the subject to the variations of bodo E. Forbes have done much to enlarge and illus- ily type, as well as to the local distribution of trate this inquiry. In Sir C. Lyell's work there races and nations, and the growth of the various is an admirable account of those conditions which languages which have become the use of manprobably have determined the various distribution and we must postpone its consideration till the of species over land and sea-closely limiting the whole topic is more completely before us. locality of some, enabling others to occupy large Meanwhile, recurring to the physical evidenos tracts of the earth's surface or of the waters of the for the origin of mankind from a single pais, wa
This will at once be recognized as a fun- may advert once more to the fact, that the actual damental part of the inquiry. On the one hand, deviations in man from a common type or standard while pointing at the original singleness of local- are less than those which we find in the animals ity for every species, it indicates their diffusion most familiar to us by domestication. The causes or limitation as depending on the capacities of of variation, as we have seen, are mainly also the each for undergoing the deviations which enable same; including that most remarkable cause, the them to sustain changes of climate, food, and other tendency in certain acquired qualities or habits to conditions of life. On the other hand, it indicates become hereditary in the race. To this great nas the main causes of all such varieties in these ural phenomenon we may trace many of the more altered conditions of existence acting on certain prominent features, physical, moral, and intellece parts of the animal structure and economy, and ual, which distinguish races and nations. Its opermodifying them within the limits of change pre-ation begins with individuals and families, when scribed to each species; thus completing the the effects are most familiar to our observationcitcle of demonstration to which every day is widens, though becoming less marked, as these are adding new evidence.
grouped together into larger cominunities—blends Following, then, this great line of analogy from itself variously and closely with all the other nat inferior species, we are led to infer that man also ural causes which modify the species—and finally, had his origin in a single and definite place on though more obscurely, forms the basis of what we the earth; whence he has diffused himself more call national character; a term often vaguely used, widely over its surface than any other species, by but true and explicit in itself, and involving soma virtue of those eminent faculties of mind, as well of the most curious questions which concern the as body, which enable him to meet even the ex- condition and prospects of mankind. The whole treme contingencies of climate and food, and to subject is one fairly approachable by human reason adapt his existence more variously to the circum- and observation, yet hitherto less studied than we stances around him. Man can clothe himself, can Imight suppose likely, seeing that these same causes
are actually and constantly in operation under our we can affirm nothing; and, rather than hazard an eyes, shaping out new forms of national character, idle speculation, are willing to leave the question and with them new destinies for the human race. in the obscurity where probably it must ever remain. We might cite many instances to this effect.
We have now completed the outline of this inwill name only the most remarkable, in the United quiry, as far as the physiological argument is conStates of America ; where, though colonized almost cerned. It has, we think, been rendered, on exclusively from one old and civilized country, and purely scientific grounds, next to certain that man deriving from that source its language, laws, liter-is one in species-highly probable that al: the ature, and numberless usages, there has grown up, varieties of this species are derived from one pair, within little more than two centuries, a great and a single locality on the earth. There are no nation, well marked and peculiar in many of its difficulties attending these conclusions so great as physical and moral features, and likely to assume those which other theories involve—and it may
be a still more definite character, notwithstanding its accepted as a further indication of truth, that, in vast increase of territory and population. The proportion as our knowledge in the several sciences instance is one eminently illustrative for our sub-connected with this subject has become larger and ject, showing at once the scope of such variations, more exact, in the same proportion have these difand the causes, manner, and time required for their ficulties lessened or disappeared. Armed, then, with accomplishment.
this strong presumption, derived from one source, There yet remains a question, and that a curious we approach the second part of the argument, as one, connected with the physiological part of our originally proposed ; that, to wit, depending on the inquiry. If mankind, as now peopling the earth, history of human languages in their various forms be of one species, and derived from a single pair, and connection with the history of nations over the what bodily configuration and character had this globe. But on this theme, needful though it be simple primitive stock ? Were the originals of to the completion of the subject, and largely emour species like to any of the derivative races, or bodied in the works before us, we cannot at pres moulded in some form now lost amidst the multi- ent enter further than to show its intimate relation tude of secondary varieties? In his earliest re- to the inquiry, and the general results to which it searches Dr. Prichard adopted as to this point a leads. It is far too copious to be dealt with in view somewhat repugnant to the common notions the small space we have at our disposal, and too and feelings of the civilized world. He boldly complex to admit of any intelligible abridgment. stated his belief that the Negro must be considered That language should exist at all, and that it the primitive type of the human race ; resting this should exist among every people and community conclusion on the following grounds-1st, that in of the earth, even those lowest in the scale of inferior species of animals any variations of color civilization, is in itself a cogent argument for the are chiefly from dark to lighter, and this generally unity of man as a species. As is the case with as an effect of domesticity and cultivation ; 2dly, so many other wonders amidst which we live, its that we have instances of light varieties, as of the very familiarity disguises to us the marvellous Albino, among Negroes—but never of anything like nature of this great faculty of speech, confided to the Negro among Europeans ; 3dly, that the dark man, and to man alone, by the design of his Crearaces are better fitted by their organization for the tor.* The more deeply we look into the struct wild or natural state of life ; 4thly, that the nations ure and diversities of language, the more does or tribes lowest in the scale of actual civilization this wonder augment upon us; mixed, however, have all kindred with the Negro race.
with great perplexity, in regarding the multitude Taking these arguments as they are stated, and and variety of these different forms, hitherto reckeven conceding for the moment all the assumptions oned only by approximation, but certainly exceeds they involve, we certainly see no such cogency in ing some hundreds in number. Many of these them as to oblige us to relinquish the fairer view are reducible, with more or less deviation, to cerof our original progenitors. Even Dr. Prichardtain common roots—others do not yet admit of himself seems to have abandoned this theory in his later writings, though rather by silent evasion of embarrass ourselves with ihe question, whether this
* We will not, by widening the definition of language, it than by any direct avowal of change. While, faculty be not possessed by various animals subordinate however, we refuse on any present proof to people to man. Admitting fully the expression of Cuvier, in our Eden with a Negro pair, we must fairly admit comparing the faculties of brutes with those of man,
“ Leur intelligence exécute des opérations du mêmé that we can give no satisfactory answer as to the genre,” we still believe that no just definition can idenpoint in question. Direct evidence on the subject lify the mere instinctive communications hy sound, how
ever modified, ihrough which the wants of animals are is wholly wanting, nor is it easy to see whence it expressed and supplied, with those wonderful forins and should ever be obtained. There is as much reason devices of language which have rendered even grammar for supposing the original type to be altogether culture. Of the writers who have sought to assimilats
itself a science, and an index of human character and lost, as for believing it to be represented in any the language of inferior animals to that of man, the late ane form that now exists around us. All we can
Dr. Maculloch is ihe most able, and in his posthumous
work on Natural Theology will be found a very ingenious presume with any degree of assurance is, that this chapter on the subject, defaced, it must be owned, by a primitive type did not depart out of the limits of style and spirit of writing which robs his works of half existing forms, in whatever manner or proportion their value. In this case it seems less his object to ele
vate our notions of the fuculties of the lower animals, it may have combined their varieties. Beyond this than to degrade our estimate of the huinan being.
such affiliation -others again have been so imper- ! more than one species of mankind, and were the fectly examined or recorded, owing to the want type of one race really inferior in its origin to of a common phonetic system, that no sure place that of another, nothing would be so likely to has yet been assigned to them in the series. attest this as the manner of communication of
It is to this seeming chaos of tongues that the thought and feeling. Language itself would belabors of modern scholars and philosophers have come the surest interpreter of this difference. Bat been earnestly directed ; not simply for the solu- its actual varieties, only partially coincident with tion of questions as to the structure, diversities, the degree of civilization and social advancement, and connections of language, but with yet higher offer no such lines of demarcation ; and, however aim, in regard to the origin and progress of na- great the differences, all possess and manifest in tions. Ethnology owes many of its most precious their structure a common relation to the uses or documents to these researches. They have aided necessities of man. it where the records of history were obscure or The most peculiar class of languages, that most altogether wanting ; and it cannot be doubted by detached from others in its genius as well as forms, those who have watched the course of this science is undoubtedly the monosyllabic, as spoken and of late years that it is destined to advance much writien in China and certain conterminious counfurther by the same prolific methods of inquiry. tries. The singularities of this inorganic language, We have before noted the names of some of the as it may well be termed, have furnished endless eminent men engaged on the subject. The “ Dis- matter of discussion to the most accomplished course on Ethnology” by Chevalier Bunsen is a philologists. It has even been made a question remarkable example of these labors, and of the whether it should be termed the most imperfect or philosophical refinements which have been added the most perfect form of human speech ; whether to the study of language. The vague and partial the rudest or the most philosophical of inventions. conjectures of etymology, and the crude catalogues Without engaging in a warfare of definitions, which of words caught by the untutored ear, are now here, as in so many other cases, are the real matter replaced by a close and critical research into the in dispute, we may safely state it to fulfil all the principles of language, and into analogies of a probable conditions of language in its earliest and higher class than those founded upon words and most simple form. M. Bunsen goes so far as to sounds alone. We could willingly pursue this consider it as a monument of antediluvian speech, topic further, but must limit ourselves simply to insulated from others by physical changes on the what may show the vast aids derived from this globe, and retaining those primitive and fundasource to the study of the history of Man ; and the mental characters which have elsewhere merged increasing certainty of the conclusions, as the into secondary and more complex forms. Without materials become larger, and the methods of using following him into this bold speculation, it is sufthem more comprehensive and exact.
ficient to say that, even if the Chinese language The classification of languages is, in truth, the were proved to stand absolutely alone in its most classification of mankind—the migration and inter-prominent features, we could recognize in this no mixture of languages are records of the changes proof of a separatė stock of mankind. The and movements of man over the face of the globe. physical characters of this people distinctly denote From the singular multiplicity, however, of these them as belonging to the great Mongolian family; forms of human speech, a person new to the sub- and as the monosyllabic form of language does not ject might well suppose it impossible to arrive at extend to other nations of that race, we are not any certain issue; while those who have gone entitled from its peculiarities to deduce a concludeepest into it find certain limits, which no genius sion which is opposed to these less dubious marks or labor can surmount. Nevertheless, in relation of a common original. to our argument, this very multiplicity, like that We are left, then, amidst this multitudinous of the physical varieties of mankind, becomes an array of tongues, with no more certain clue of evidence of common original. Whatever opinion origin than those common necessities of social life be held as to the primitive source of language- and intercourse which belong to the species. and many have found cause to consider it of divine These, however, are necessities in the strongest communication—we may fairly presume that the sense of the word. They compel the formation numerous varieties of speech, now existing, had of language, and even of the more essential gramtheir origin in the detached localities and under malical forms which it assumes. To explain its the various conditions in which portions of man- multiplied varieties we can do no other than admit, kind were early spread over the earth. Their what is probable, indeed, on other grounds, the early formation, and the changes they have undergone, separation of the human race into distinct comhave been determined by the faculties, feelings, munities, and the dispersion of those into localities and social instincts, common to the whole species, so far detached as to give cause and scope for the and requiring analogous modes of expression by formation of new languages ; some of them retainspeech. Accordingly we find that the grammat-ing obvious traces of a primitive root, and collaterical relations of different languages, apart from ally connected more or less closely with other those technical forms which disguise them to ordi- tongues; others, again, seemingly insulated in nary observation, are more certain and closer than origin and independent of all such connection. the connection by words and roots. Were there The latter case is obviously the one most difficult to conceive, compatibly with a single origin of searches tend to the same conclusion as that almankind; and in seeking for explanation we feel ready deduced from physiology, viz., that man is of ourselves forced backwards upon periods of time one species, and derived from a single pair priinwhich may well alarm the imagination and dis-itively created on the earth. There yet remain courage inquiry. Recent research, however, has two inquiries, to which, notwithstanding their done a good deal to abate these difficulties; and it interest, we have only slightly adverted—those, is iinportant to remark here, as we have done in namely, which regard time and place in their rerespect to the physical diversities of mankind, that lation to this great event. But, to say nothing of the more minute the inquiry, the more do all dif- the intrinsic difficulty of these questions under any ferences and anomalies disappear from view. A circumstances, we consider that they cannot reamere superficial regard to words and sounds often sonably be brought into view until we have first leaves widely asunder what a rigid analysis of mastered, as far as it may be done, this preliminary methods and roots will exhibit as closely related science of human languages. Our physical knowlin origin, and dissevered only by successive steps, edge of man, as a part of the animal creation, is which are sometimes themselves to be traced in wholly inadequate to such inquiries ; and he must, existing forins of speech. The philosophy of in truth, be an adventurous reasoner who expects language thus becomes a guide to ethnology, the to draw from either source any certain solution of best interpreter of the history of nations.
them. Were we not limited here to a mere outline of We may possibly at a future time resume this the subject, many instances might be given of these important subject in the greater detail it requires. recent discoveries in philology which have removed Meanwhile, we hope to have already justified the old barriers of time and space, and thrown their assertion with which we prefaced this article, that Jight forwards upon fields of knowledge still there is no subject of science of deeper interest unexplored. It is interesting to note how much than that which regards the natural history and these discoveries, as well as the classification and original condition of man. Even were the quesnomenclature of languages previously adopted, tions it involves less remarkable, and less important connect themselves with the recorded tripartite in regard to the present and future condition of the division of mankind into three great families after species, the methods of argument and sources of the Scriptural deluge. Some of the most remark- evidence are such as may well engage and engross able results recently obtained are those which dis- every scientific inquirer. The evidence is drawn close relations, hitherto unsuspected or unproved, from all parts of creation—from the mind, as between the language of Ancient Egypt and the well as from the bodily conformation of man himSemitic and Japhetic langrages of Asia ; thus self. The argument is one of probability ; always associating together in probable origin those three tending to greater certainty, though, it may be, great roots which, in their separate diffusion, have incapable of ever reaching that which is complete. spread forms of speech over all the civilized parts But this is a method of reasoning well understood of the world. Taking the Japhetian, or Indo- to be compatible with the highest philosophy, and Teutonic branch, as it has lately been termed, we peculiarly consonant to our present faculties and find these inquiries embracing and completing the position in the universe. And if “ in this ocean connections between the several families of lan- of disquisition fogs have been often mistaken for guage which compose this eminent division of land," as in so many other regions of science, we mankind; already dominant in Europe for a long may at least affirm that the charts are more corseries of ages, and destined apparently, through rectly laid down than ever before; the bearings some of its branches, to still more general do- better ascertained ; and that our reason can hardly minion over the globe. We may mention, as one be shipwrecked on this great argument, if common of the latest examples of the refined analysis of caution be observed in the course we pursue. which we are speaking, the complete reduction of the Celtic to the class of Indo-Teutonic languages,
WHEN I daily look up, through the labors of Bopp, Prichard, and Pictet ;
And never look down, whereby an eighth family is added to this great
I find that my cup stock, and the circle completed which defines their
Is filled to the crown. relations to one another, and to the other languages
Whatever is wanted, of mankind.
Into my heart flows ; In closing our remarks on this subject we must
'Tis when the heart 's lifted, again repeat that we have almost exclusively
God kindly bestows. limited them to what regards its general connection
When I grovel in dust, with the primitive history of man ;-unable to in
And murmur and fret, clude that vast body of knowledge which has given
How few and how meagre philology a place among the sciences, and associ
The blessings I get! ated it with ethnology by relations which serve to
'T is only when upward illustrate and verify both. Yet we have said
I eagerly turn, enough to show how closely the history of human
That favors are granted, language is connected with that of the human
And wisdom I learn. species—and, further, how strongly these re