their finery to the enterprise of wanderers so humble.

Of course it is, as a rule, desirable that civilization, with all its processes, should replace barbarism. But it may be doubted whether, in many parts of Southern Europe, society has yet arrived at that stage in which it ought to dispense with pedlers. It is, however, a mere question of economy. The rent of shops, and the wages of an establishment, greatly, when trade is dull, augment the price of commodities, because the weight of such charges falls upon a few customers. When the demand is brisk, when money changes hands rapidly, when people throng to shops in crowds, it is possible to be content with a smaller profit, and society becomes a gainer perhaps for the suppression of nomadic traders.

Frenchmen, even in their own country, are accustomed, when in poor circumstances, to subsist on a very homely and economical diet. Bread, a few onions, and a sip of sour wine, they almost regard as luxuries. The same habit and theory of living follow them into other countries, especially when, like our pedlers, their sole object is to save money, to provide for the comforts of their old age, or, if practicable, to enable them to marry in middle life, and undertake the responsibilities of a family. Of one luxury the pedler is careful not to deprive himself-we mean of a little provision of cigars-which he carries about with him, carefully wrapt in a bit of oil-skin, to protect them from the weather; and on the bleak, rocky mountains of Corsica and Sardinia, smoking is indeed a luxury. In civilized countries, in large cities, in capacious, comfortable, well-ventilated apartments, it may be a mere piece of extravagance to expend money on Havanas. It would seem to be otherwise in the cases under consideration. The pedler, on quitting his humble cabaret, or still more comfortless cottage, in the chill damp mornings, his teeth chattering, his whole frame half-shrunk by the night's cold, experiences an agreeable elevation of spirits the moment he takes out his flint and steel, and kindles his cigar. It serves him also as a companion as he puffs away, he fancies himself in friendly society, especially when the smoke wreathes lovingly around him in some sheltered nook or hollow in the way. Ease and opulence know nothing of such pleasures: everything with them is comfort and regularity; but the wild wayfarer, with all his earthly possessions on his back, who carries at the same time his purse and his life in his hands-who has to face the storms of winter and the heats of summer-who is always lonely, often sad, sometimes oppressed, dejected, and miserable derives gratification from small, and, it may be, equivocal pleasures, if sinoking indeed be one of these.

Sometimes the track of the pedler lies through districts so desolate, that he can find at night no habitation, however humble, in which to take shelter, but must betake himself to some cavern or hollow among the rocks. Here his flint and steel come into requisition. He gathers dry leaves and bits of decayed wood, and kindles himself a fire, close to which he lies down, and enjoy the semblance at least of a summer dwelling; by the light of it also he eats his humble supper-a little bread, hard and dry crust of cheese, or a piece of antiquated sausage, with, it may be, an onion or two, or a clove or garlic. Water from the neighboring well or stream quenches his thirst; and then he betakes himself to sleep on the hard rock, with the

infinite air breathing around him, and the stars raining their influences upon his head from the sky. It may be matter of wonder that the property these men carry about with them-which, though not great, must still be a temptation to dishonestywould not constantly expose them to the assaults of robbers. The explanation perhaps is, that the state of society which requires pedlers nourishes those prejudices and feelings that operate as their protection. There is in Corsica and Sardinia, and indeed in all other countries similarly circumstanced, a sort of superstition attached to the pedler's character, which prevents even verv desperate persons from attempting his life. He makes his appearance among them trustingly and fearlessly-for pedlers never carry arms-and wherever he comes, excites mirth and gayety in young and old. He adorns the persons of their wives and daughters, makes their children look gay, and diffuses an air of cheerfulness and contentment through a whole village. Experience of kindness from others makes him gentle and kind in his turn. He is polished by rubbing against the world, and learns at the same time resolution and modesty. Full of stories and anecdotes of adventures and hair-breadth escapes, he has a perpetual fund of entertainment; and the cottage in which he passes the night is generally crowded with as many neighbors as it will hold, who sit in a circle around him, to listen to his narratives.

Occasionally, though not often, the pedler condescends to become the messenger of love, and bears from hamlet to hamlet tender epistles, which he himself perhaps has indited at the request of lover or mistress. At times he assumes the character of umpire and peacemaker, terminates quarrels, crushes the germs of lawsuits, and, by a timely present of no great value, makes up matches, and diffuses happiness through a whole class.

Once, in Sardinia, at a village high up in the mountains, a pedler, whom we afterwards met in Genoa, arrived about Christmas during very severo weather. A farmer, whose daughter was about to be married, kindly invited him to make some stay at his house. The pedler accepted the invitation, and remained eight or ten days, kept a prisoner, as it were, by the hospitality of his host and a perpetual succession of snow-storms. He was present at the wedding, and at the merry-making given by the family in the evening, where he noticed among the guests a young man of rather handsome appearance, who attracted much attention by the gloomy fierceness of his manner. Towards most persons he preserved a sullen silence; but he relaxed with the pedler, laughed, and talked a great deal; inquired what route he meant to take, and how long it was likely to be before he would be among them again.

In due time the pedler quitted the farmhouse, and proceeded on his way. The country just there was very thinly inhabited, the woods frequent, and of considerable extent, and here and there were caverns of various dimensions. In one of these the pedler one snowy night found himself compelled to take refuge. He had had the precaution to take some food with him; and, the cold being piercing he collected a quantity of wood, kindled a fire, and sat down to enjoy his supper beside it. He had not taken many mouthfuls before he observed a man enter the cavern covered with snow, which he shook from him as he advanced. There was an immediate recognition: it was no other than the farmer's wedding-guest! He accosted the pedler

with a strange constrained civility-saying he was
come to sup, and spend the night with him.
"You are welcome," said the Frenchman with
as much self-command as he could assume.
"Perhaps, however," replied the Sardinian, "I
shall not continue to be so when I shall have
explained my errand?"

We shall see: explain yourself." 66 Listen, then."

all night; and in the morning we will separate, each to pursue his own way.'

In the morning, as they were about to bid each other adieu, the Sardinian took out his dagger, and cutting off one of the buttons from his coat, handed it to the Frenchman, saying, "Take that and keep it till I restore you your money. Observe, it is of silver, and has been handed down in my family for many generations. I would not part with it for all "I listen: proceed. But allow me first to offer you possess; and when I intend to repay you the you a little supper. Here, pray take a slice of hundred dollars, this is the course I shall pursue: German sausage and a little of this wine, which II will say I have lost my button, and will offer a have luckily brought along with me. Taste it; it hundred dollars to any one who shall find and bring is very good." it to me. You will present yourself: you will produce the button; and I, as in honor bound, will give you the sum agreed on. Do we part friends?"

"No," answered the Sardinian; "I will neither eat nor drink with you until I find whether it will be necessary to kill you or not!"

"Kill me?"

"Yes, you; unless you accede to the request I am about to make. Listen: I am in love with a girl whose father will not give her to me unless I can prove myself to be in possession of one hundred dollars. Now I wish you to lend me that sum, which I will faithfully repay to you: not at any stated time, observe, for I may be unfortunate; but I swear to you here on this dagger that I will repay it sooner or later." And he held up the glittering weapon in the light of the flames, ready to press it to his lips should the pedler accede to his request.

The Frenchman naturally felt exceedingly uncomfortable; for, from the savage aspect of his guest, he did not doubt he had reason to dread the


The Sardinian continued: "Should you be so foolish as to refuse me, I shall kill you, take all your property, marry, and make use of it. But because I am an honest man, I wish you in that case to tell me who is your nearest of kin in France, since it will be my most earnest endeavor to repay him the money as soon as Providence shall have put it in my power."

Here he paused, to observe what effect his words had produced on the pedler, who for some time was too much terrified to reply.

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The pedler, who, notwithstanding his loss, could not but be amused by the strange character and ideas of the Sardinian, gave him his hand, and they parted friends.

Next year he passed the same way again, and sure enough found his friend married to a very pretty woman, who had already brought him a son. He seemed very happy; but coming up to the Frenchman, he said, Now I have lost a button: I am not yet rich enough to buy one to replace it: I may be more lucky next year."


The pedler understood; and, after having been made very welcome at his house, went his way.

A second and a third year he returned, and every time found a young son or daughter added to the family. At length-pleased with his reception, with the constant hospitality shown him, with the pleasant wife and cheerful increasing family-he took the Sardinian aside, and presenting him with his button: "Allow me to restore you this article of yours, which I have found."

"No, no," replied his host; "keep it another year: by that time I shall be able to redeem it, and at the same time to spend a very merry evening with you. Come this way next winter, and you shall see."

The months rolled round: the pedler, regular as the season, came again; and the Sardinian invited "Well," resumed the guest, " you are unde-him to supper. All the children had been sent to cided? It is just what I expected: it is very bed, and he and his wife only remained with their natural. However, I will stay all night with you, guest. that you may have time for reflection; because I would rather not kill you if I could help it. Still, I have made up my mind to be married next week, and I would kill fifty pedlers rather than postpone the ceremony."

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"Under these circumstances," replied the Frenchman, "I must lend you the money, since I have no choice."

“You resolve wisely: you have no choice. One observation more, however, I must make, and then we will sit down comfortably to supper. It is this: when you next come to our village, you will of course see me and my wife, and you will take up your residence with us in preference to any other persons. You will say nothing, however, of the present transaction, neither to her nor to any one else. You will not seem afraid of me, as indeed you need not be, but will be merry, and reckon confidently on being repaid the sum with which you now accommodate me."

All this the pedier promised.

"Now," exclaimed the young man, "give me your hand we are friends: let us sit down to supper. Afterwards you can reckon me out the money; we will keep up a good fire, and chat by it!

Agatha," said he to her, "do you know that it is to your friend here that you are indebted for a husband?"

His wife looked surprised.

"I beg your pardon, dear Agatha," said he; "that is not what I ought to have said. I mean I am indebted to him for a wife, as it was he who supplied me with the hundred dollars, without which your father would have refused you to me."

"Oh, how heartily I thank you!" exclaimed the wife; for he is a good hushand and a good father." "But I robbed him," said the husband. He then related the whole circumstance, remarking at the conclusion, “I intrust my secret to you, Agatha, because my honor is as dear to you as my life. Here. friend," exclaimed he, placing a little bag on the table, "here are your hundred dollars; so now restore me my button, which you have doubtlessly kept carefully."

"Yes, here it is!" exclaimed the Frenchman, taking it from his purse; "and now we are even, except that I owe you much, very much, for the constant hospitality you have shown me."


Nay," replied the husband; "it is to you that I am indebted for my wife and children; you have

been in some sort a father to us all; and therefore, so long as I have a house over my head, pray consider it yours.

Pedlers are sometimes generous. Taking up the bag of dollars, and turning to the wife, the Frenchman said, "Allow me, madam, to present this to your youngest child as a birthday present. I am in a condition to afford it. I have made much money in your country, and intend next year to marry, and retire to Provence, my native land.”

The present was accepted; but the farmer, not to be outdone in generosity, forced on him next morning a handsome horse of considerably greater value. The same pedler had been engaged in many other little adventures, which he used to relate with that case and naïveté so characteristic of the French. We fell in with him just as he was about returning to Provence, where we daresay he still enjoys the property which he amassed with so much toil, honesty, and perseverance. The English merchants who supply this class of men are less prudent and economical, and commonly spend their whole gains in what is technically called "making an appearance." They, moreover, marry Italian women, settle at Genoa, and soon lose all desire to return to England. Thus deprived of the chief spur to economy, they contract indolent habits, and devote themselves to amusement and pleasure; and, while the men whose knapsacks they supply rise to independence, and often even to opulence, contract debts and embarrassments, and terminate their lives in poverty. Of course there are exceptions to this rule. But it is the rule, we fear, in Northern Italy, where, through a superior agency, a much larger amount of British goods might be annually distributed, especially if our manufacturers could study the taste of the people, and supply them with the colors and patterns most agreeable to them. On the coast of Spain the operations of the French knapsack-men are encountered and checked by smugglers from Gibraltar. Still, in both cases, the goods are chiefly English; so that, as a people, it is immaterial to us through which of these channels they find their way into the Spanish market.

From the Anti-Slavery Standard.


THE snow had begun in the gloaming,
And busily all the night

Had been heaping field and highway
With a silence deep and white.
Every pine and fir and hemlock

Wore ermine too dear for an earl,
And the poorest twig on the elm-tree
Was ridged inch-deep with pearl.
From sheds new roofed with Carrara,

Came Chanticleer's muffled crow,

The stiff rails were softened to swan's-down,
And still fluttered down the snow.

I stood and watched by the window
The noiseless work of the sky,
And the sudden flurries of snow-birds,
Like brown leaves whirling by.

I thought of a mound in sweet Auburn,
Where a little head-stone stood,
How the flakes were folding it gently,
As did robins the babes in the wood.

Up spoke our own little Mabel,

Saying, "Father, who makes it snow?" And I told of the good Allfather

Who cares for us all below.

Again I looked at the snowfall,

And thought of the leaden sky
That arched o'er our first great sorrow,
When that mound was heaped so high.

I remembered the gradual patience
That fell from that cloud like snow,
Flake by flake, healing and hiding
The scar of that deep-stabbed woe.
And again to the child I whispered,
"The snow that husheth all,
Darling, the merciful Father,
Alone can make it fall!"

Then, with eyes that saw not, I kissed her,
And she, kissing back, could not know
That my kiss was given to her sister
Folded close under deepening snow.

J. R. L.

From the National Fra



THE wind is sighing,
The snow deep lying,
With crisp ice covered

On the frozen ground.

No sky appearing,
No sunbeam cheering,
But pale clouds rolling,
Rolling round.

The tall trees shiver,
By the creaking river,
Where oft the icicles

Shrilly fall,

From cliffs o'er bending,
From boughs descending,
With snow full laden,
Leafless all.

'Tis gloomier growing;
The wind is blowing
Stronger, louder,

Through the night,

A blank of sadness:
Yet, for gladness,
Seeks my spirit-
Lo! 't is light!

The fire is burning,
The taper turning
The fearful darkness
Back to day.

Books surround me ;
Joy hath found me;
Drear December
Steals away.

Washington, December 17, 1849.


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From the Independent.

So much is this felt to be the case, that it is com

monly asserted, on the part of the conservatives, THE JEWS OF EUROPE.

that the whole originated, and still centres, in them. Of course this is an exaggeration ; but the general

prevalence and the felt strength of the assertion lie It would be scarcely possible for any man, in the acknowledged fact, that if their influence having a heart capable of human emotion, to has not been exclusive, it has been very great. А ascend the tower of observation with Lucretius, large majority of the democratic societies have and while the storm is still raging and multiplying Jews for their leaders and chief speakers. If its victims, attempt to estimate the havoc which has smaller in point of numbers, they have generally been made, and to count the numbers of the dying what is of equal importance in such times—daring:

in these unions the ascendency in talent, tact, and, and the dead which strew the storm-lashed and The two levers of greatest power at present in the wreck-strewn shore. Neither may we look upon political world, are money and the press.

In bleeding and agonizing nations in order to count respect to the former, the Jews have had long the their throes and speculate upon the probabilities supremacy. They rule the exchange in the greater of life and death. But we may, with a deep part of Europe. Even governments have been though calm and sad interest, fix attention for known to tremble in the ante-chamber of a Jew. awhile upon some who are monuments of sin and of suffering, who have endured and still endure a But the press of continental Europe is no less in discipline unexampled in the history of nations, literature, more especially, swarms with Jewish

Jewish hands; every department of periodical and yet without the ends of the correction being laborers. In the majority of cases, the

newspaper attained.

press is conducted by Jews, as editors, sub-editors, A few months since the Jew in Rome rejoiced and occasional contributors. The correspondenee in his emancipation; now the degrading and infa- is almost entirely managed by them. These men mous Ghetto again incloses him. Yesterday, in are, without doubl, the leaders of public opinion on Germany, the Jew held his head aloft, and in his the continent, and are covertly, or more openly, as pride and ambition was willing to accept political it suits the circumstances of the moment, under

mining at once the national institutions and the equality and an open path to Jewish ascendency national faith. in exchange for a worn-out faith in a Messiah to Yes, some who were looking to Chris

The absolutist spirit of the London Quarterly tianity—to mere nominal and despised Christian- Review would naturally excite distrust and watchity-as means of escape from political and fulness regarding its statements, but the facts consocial inferiority into the region of influence and tained in the following extract are beyond question : power, gladly accepted the alternative which revo

Nor should we omit to mention another influenlution and political change offered to them. In tial body who have played a distinguished part in these new circumstances they needed not the aid all the revolutions of Germany—we mean the of Christianity in order to their advancement, and Jews. At least one third, if not one half, of the as little desired or expected any other Messiah. public journals in Germany have for a long time So of the Jew in Hungary. In the firm estab- been conducted by Jewish editors. In Austria, lishment of the national independence he saw the have been Jews. Dr. Jellinck, for instance, who

the most forward among the extreme democrats means of realizing Jewish hopes and aspirations.

was executed with Dr. Bekker on the 230 NovemHow have these hopes been dashed! At this ber of last year, at Vienna, and whose journal had hour the Jews of Hungary, as one man, are been an organ of the Red party since the month of stripped and peeled with a remorseless ferocity, at March last, appears to have been a Jew, born on least equal to that to which he was subjected by the frontiers of Moravia and Hungary. The the robber baron of the middle ages, who wrung refugees in Paris, both occupying a prominent

names of Börne and Heine, both of whom died by torture from the Jew the last remnant of his position in the most advanced section of revolutionwealth. But it is not a mere blind ferocity or ary writers, are doubtless familiar to our readers. the greed of wealth which leads the butcherly Both of these daring adventurers were Jews. In Haynau lo despoil and trample upon the Jew. Austria, the Jews have of late played so prominent The active and powerful Jewish intellect has been a part in revolutionary politics, that out of ten leadthe precursor of revolutions. Jewish energy and ing men six of eight will be found to belong to

that nation. daring have been conspicuous in the actual

In Prussia, likewise, the most violent struggle. These facts are imperfectly under journals are in the hands of the Jews, whose leader

in the chamber at Berlin is Jacobi, a member of stood even now, although a slight acquaintance the extreme left. with the state of society in Germany and an intelligent observation of the course of events

Such is the remarkable aspect which the Jew during the last few months supply sufficient evi- presents when contemplated merely in his position dence of their truth. In a highly interesting

in respect to the nations of Europe. By his inpaper prepared by Rev. Mr. Smith, of the Free tellectual power and superiority he guides opinChurch of Scotland, who was some time in Ger- ions ; by his boldness and daring courage he gives

force to actual insurrection. But while arrested many, the following statement is made :

by this spectacle, and led to ponder on a multitude The Jews have taken a leading hand in all the of thoughts, the Christian man, the Gentile graft late revolutionary movements on the continent.) of the wild olive-tree, would fain look deeper into

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the Jewish mind, and with solemn questionings | the term “ Phanuel.” M. D'Abbadie has brought inquire, what now is the religion of the Jew? with him copies of these books. He further learned How does he view his ancient faith? Is he draw- from his informant that to the south of their country, ing nearer to the Hope of Israel and the Saviour in the country of the Gazoo, there was a Jewish

kingdom ; a statement confirmed to our traveller thereof? Will he indeed look upon Him whom by other evidence, altogether independent of that he hath pierced and mourn? Or is that deeper of the Halashahs. He also said that he met in darkness which precedes the dawn settling down Abyssinia a most interesting native Jewish youth, upon his mind?

who was most anxious to go to Europe, in order With the permission of The Independent, a few to acquire there correct notions on Judaism, which, thoughts, or half thoughts, on these questions will on his return to his native country, might be prop

agated among his brethren. This youth made probably be offered in a future communication.

M. D'Abbadie solemnly promise that he would THE JEWS EN ABYSSINIA.

endeavor to interest European Jews for that object,

and inform him of the result within a twelvemonth. One of the brothers D'Abbadie, the well-known The traveller regretted his want of acquaintance African travellers, has recently passed through with Jews, which he was afraid would render his London on his return froin Abyssinia, where he exertions abortive.

AGRICOLA. has been during the last eleven years. While in • London he communicated to an Israelite some par

GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL CONSIDERticulars relating to the Jews in Abyssinia, which

ATIONS FROM LT. MAURY'S RECENT PAPERS are not without interest :

ON COMMUNICATION WITH THE PACIFIC. The Halashahs (strangers) are held in abhorrence by the Abyssinians, and when their chiefs

LONGITUDINAL RIVERS. came to M. D'Abbadie the Abyssinians fled, being afraid of contracting an impurity by coming into A RIVER that runs east or west crosses no contact with individuals of that hated race. In the parallels of latitude, consequently, as it flows conference which the French traveller held with towards the sea, it does not change its climate, them, he laid before them a letter addressed to him and, being in the same climate, the crops that are by the well-known Italian Hebrew scholar, S. D. cultivated at its mouth are grown also at its Luzzato, containing various questions bearing on Jewish matters.

The letter, originally written in sources, and from one end to the other of it there French, had been translated by M. D'Abbadie into is no variety of productions ; it is all wheat and Ethiopic. The traveller carefully wrote down corn, or wine, or oil, or some other staple. Astheir replies, and intends to publish them in some sorted cargoes, therefore, cannot be made up from French paper. The Halashahs appear to entertain the produce which such a river brings down to some extraordinary religious notions, altogether market. incompatible with Judaism as understood by the

On the other hand, a river that runs north or other Jews. They hold celibacy in high honor; and when asked in what part of the Bible that state, south crosses parallels of latitude ; changes its was recommended, they point to the example of climate at every turn; and the traveller the prophet Elijah, who, according to their opinion, descends it, he sees every day new agricultural was never married, no allusion being made in his staples abounding. Such a river bears down to history either to his wife or children. They also the sea a variety of productions, some of which consider suicide from religious motives as highly some one or another of the different nations of meritorious. Persons disposed to sacrifice their the earth is sure to want, and for which each one lives repair to the brink of a river, and there sol- will send to the markets at its mouth, or the port emnly inquire of God whether their end is come or not. If the signs taken as a reply be in the whence they are distributed over the world. The affirmative, suicide is committed ; but if the reply assortments of merchandise afforded by such a be in the negative, they wait for a twelvemonth, river are the life of commerce. They give it when the same inquiries are again made.

energy, activity, and scope. Such a river is the They are totally unacquainted with Hebrew, and Mississippi, and the Mississippi is the only such read the Scriptures in their native language, into river in the world. which, according to M. D'Abbadie, they were translated from the Arabic. Besides the books held by all Jews as authoritative, they also con

THE INTERTROPICAL SEA. sider the Apocrypha as sacred. These books, in But the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean as far as they were examined by our traveller, per: Sea-call them the intertropical sea of America, fectly agree with the Vulgate, except the book of the Maccabees, in which he discovered great dis- for they are in fact but one sea-are supported by crepancies. They also possess a commentary on the most inagnificent system of river basins in the each of the sacred books, except the book of world, and the grandest back country on the face Ezekiel, which has been lost. In addition to the of the earth. The rivers which empty into this five books of Moses, they possess a sixth, which American sea drain more back country than do all they call “ Coofaclaw.” The names of the other the seas of Europe ; and they drain more climates books agree with ours, and appear therefore to be than do all the other rivers which einpty into any Ethiopic translations of the Greek words, “Genesis, Exodus,” &c. In their liturgy, however, which one of the three great oceans. is also in Ethiopic, M. D'Abbadie thought a good

This intertropical sea is the receptacle and outHebrew scholar might trace many Hebrew words. let for all the variety of produce that is known Among others, he remembered to have found in it to the climates and soils of sevenly degrees of


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