Frederick, was dead,] or any other of her children who shall be heirs to the crown, and also sole regent of the kingdom, in case of the king's demise [old George Second] before any of them arrive at the age of 18 [then follows the analysis of the statute. I believe you'll think, as most people seem to do, that the act is judicious and well-timed, and the supreme power properly limited.

is a little recovered. D

Indorsed- "Answered 6th November, 1751, by the Torrington."]


An interval of three years. His friend was now stationed at Fort Augustus, Inverness-shire.

The gov

the matter? and what sort of life do you lead?
I shall be here a month or six weeks longer,
within which time I hope to learn good tidings of
you from yourself. I heartily wish you well. I
am, my dear friend,

DEAR RICKSON,-1 was obliged to Governor Trapaud for intelligence of my little friend; and, though Three large ships of war (guard ships) are I cannot rejoice much in your present situation, yet sailed with the Scotch Fusileers and Conway's I think you will make yourself and your acquaintregiments to relieve the king's and Skelton's, and ance easy and happy wherever you are. they, as we hear, are to march directly into Scot-ernor said you intended to write; let me desire land, which, by-the-by, is a little out of the way, you to put so good a resolve into quick execution, to carry them from the hottest immediately to the and tell me how it fares with you in that remote coldest part of the king's dominions; if they come, quarter. I admire the goodness of Providence in our regiment goes to Inverness, where I shall rethis one thing, (amongst thousands that are worthy main all the winter; if one only comes, or neither, of admiration,) that, in whatever situation a man I go to Aberdeen. L- and D- are both happens to be placed, the mind is so framed that it in England, the former had been dangerously ill, works itself out some occupation, and finds something or other to make a pleasure of; supposing , too, has been out that no distant object has taken violently hold of of order, and is gone to Bristol for health. I am not sure whether I mentioned it or not in one's affections, or that we are unreasonably bent my last letter, but as it is great grief to me, I will upon some absent imagined satisfaction. Trapaud hazard the repetition to tell it you. I got powerthinks he is very happy in having you with him, Pray, how do you think upon ful people to ask the duke [Cumberland] no less and I think so too. than three times, for leave to go abroad, and he absolutely refused me that necessary indulgence; this I consider as a very unlucky incident, and very discouraging; moreover, he accompanied his denial with a speech that leaves no hopes-that a lieutenant-colonel was an officer of too high a rank to be allowed to leave his regiment for any considerable time-this is a dreadful mistake, and if obstinately pursued, will disgust a number of good intentions, and preserve that prevailing ignorance of military affairs that has been so fatal to us in all our undertakings, and will be forever so, unless other measures are pursued. We fall every day lower and lower from our real characters, and are so totally engaged in everything that is minute and trifling, that one would almost imagine the idea of war was extinguished amongst us; they will hardly allow us to recollect the little service we have seen; that is to say, the merit of things seem to return into their old channel, and he is the brightest in his profession that is the most impertinent, talks loudest, and knows least. I repeat it again to you that poor Pleft this regiment with the approbation of all his brethren, and with the reputation of honesty and upright behavior-it will be a charitable thing to do him any good office.

I went to London in November, and came back by the middle of April.

My father has offered money for the prettiestsituated house in England, and I believe he will have it for about £3,000. It is a great sum to be so employed; but as it procures him the pleasure he likes, and a fine air, it is well laid out; it looks as if he intended to sell or let his house [A few words crumbled away] since the other is upon Black Heath, the new bridge his way


easily to St. James', which it will be.
I will write to L- to send you some porter
and the books.
hear you making ex-
cuses for imaginary trouble. I will * ** hogs-
head of claret from Ireland to Gibraltar (though I
* You cannot do me a greater
pleasure than by pointing
me a way to
relieve you, though ever so inconsiderable. Write
to me by the first opportunity, and believe me, dear
Rickson, ever your affectionate friend,
J. W.

was mys


Your affectionate and faithful servant,

Exeter, 9th December, 1754.


His friend was still at Fort Augustus. MY DEAR FRIEND,-Just as I received your letter, the drum beat to arms, and we have been in a bustle ever since. Now that it is become a little calm again, I will gather my wits together, and collect my friendly sentiments (a little dispersed with the sound of war) to answer it. Be so good, for the time to come, to presume with yourself that you have a right to correspond with me whenever you please, and as often; and be persuaded that you cannot do me a greater pleasure than by writing to me. I want to persuade you that neither time, nor distance, nor different fortunes, either has, or ever will, make the least alteration in my affection towards your little person; and that, in all probability, I shall die as much your friend as I have lived, whether at the end of one or twenty years; of which disposition in me, if I had opportunity to convince you, you should have sufficient proof. Though I know how reasonable and philosophic a man you are, yet I shall not allow you quite as much merit as I should to another in your situa tion. The remembrance of Nova Scotia makes Fort Augustus a paradise; your sufferings there will be no small aid to your contentment, for nothing can well happen of greater trial than what you have already overcome.

Since I began my letter to you yesterday, there's a fresh and a loud report of war. More ships are ordered to be fitted out; and we must expect further preparations, suited to the greatness of the occasion. You in the north will be now and then alarmed. Such a succession of errors, and such a strain of ill behavior as the last Scotch war [the rebellion of 1745] did produce, can hardly, I believe, be matched in history. Our future annals will, I hope, be filled with more stirring events.

What if the garrisons of the forts had been under the orders of a prudent, resolute man, (yourself for instance,) would not they have found means to stifle the rebellion in its birth? and might not they have acted more like soldiers and good subjects than it appears they did? What would have been the effects of a sudden march into the middle of that clan who were the first to move? What might have been done by means of hostages of wives and children, or the chiefs themselves? How easy a small body, united, prevents the junction of distant corps; and how favorable the country where you are for such a manœuvre; if, notwithstanding all precautions, they get together, a body of troops may make a diversion, by laying waste a country that the male inhabitants have left, to prosecute rebellious schemes. How soon must they return to the defence of their property-such as it is their wives, their children, their houses, and their cattle! But above all, the secret, sudden night-march into the midst of them; great patrols of 50, 60, or 100 men each, to terrify them; letters to the chiefs, threatening fire and sword, and certain destruction if they dare to stir; movements, that seem mysteri- | ous, to keep the enemy's attention upon you, and their fears awake; these and the like, which your experience, reading, and good sense would point out, are means to prevent mischief.

If one was to ask what preparations were made for the defence of the forts? I believe they would be found very insufficient. There are some things that are absolutely necessary for an obstinate resistance-and such there always should be against rebels-as tools, fascines, turf or sods, arms for the breach, (long spontoons or halberds,) palisades innumerable; whole trees, converted into that use, stuck in the ditch, to hinder an assault. No one of these articles was thought of, either at Fort Augustus or Fort George; and, in short, nothing was thought of but how to escape from an enemy most worthy of contempt. One vigorous sortie would have raised the siege of Fort Augustus ; 100 men would have nailed up the battery, or carried the artillery into the castle.


should succeed,) and was attacked by the clan, with a view to rescue their chief to which I concluded would draw on the * and furnish me with a sufficient pretext, (without waiting for any instructions,) to march into their country ; it was my real intention, and I hope such execution will be done upon the first that revolt, to teach them their duty, and keep the Highlands in awe. They are a people better governed by fear than favor.

My little governor talked to me, some time ago, of a parcel of musket-balls that belonged to us which he offered to send us. We fire bullets continually, and have great need of them; but, as I foresee much difficulty and expense in the removal, I wish he would bestow them, or a part, upon you; and let me recommend the practice; you'll soon find the advantage of it. Marksmen are nowhere so necessary as in a mountainous country; besides, firing balls at objects teaches the soldiers to level incomparably, makes the recruits steady, and removes the foolish apprehension that seizes young soldiers when they first load their arms with bullets. We fire, first singly, then by files, 1, 2, 3, or more, then by ranks, and lastly by platoons; and the soldiers see the effects of their shot, especially at a mark, or upon water. We shoot obliquely, and in different situations of ground, from heights downwards, and contrary wise. I use the freedom to mention this to you, not as one prescribing to another, but to a friend who may accept or reject; and because, possibly, it may not have been thought of by your commander, and I have experience of its great utility.

I have not been in London all this winter. If the state of our affairs had permitted it, I should certainly have waited upon your sister. You could not propose a thing more agreeable to me; for I think I must necessarily love all your kindred, at least all that love you. I hope she has recovered the hurt occasioned by that unlucky accident.

welfare. She seemed, poor lady, to be in a very ill state of health when I was in that country.

I could pass my time very pleasantly at Fort Augustus, upon your plan and with your assistance. There is no solitude with a friend.

Pray ask Trap. if he knows anything of Lady Culloden, how she is as to health? for I have a particular esteem for her, am obliged to her for I wish you may be besieged in the same man-civilities shown me, and interest myself in her ner; you will put a speedy end to the rebellion, and foil their arms in the first attempt; les Messieurs de Guise se sont tres mal comporte! If there's war, I hope the general in the north will not disperse the troops by small parties, as has been practised hitherto; but rather make choice of certain good stations for bodies that can defend themselves, or force their way home (to the forts) if occasion require it. At Laggan Achadrem, for example, they should build a strong redoubt, surrounded with rows of palisades, and trees, capable to contain 200 men at least. This is a post of great importance,

and should be maintained in a most determined manner, and the MacDonalds might knock their heads against it to very little purpose.

Old doting Humphrey, who is newly married, I find, will be a good deal occupied at home, and fondly no doubt; so you must not expect much aid from that quarter; there's our weak side.

Mr. M'Pherson should have a couple of hundred men in his neighborhood, with orders to


I hope to hear from you now and then, as your inclination prompts or your leisure allows; the oftener the better. I wish you all manner of good, and am truly, my dear friend,

Your faithful and affectionate servant, J. W. Exeter, 7th March, 1755. My compliments to Mrs. Trapaud and the governor.

I was interrupted in the beginning of the letter, and the post came in from London before I began afresh.


Addressed to Captain Rickson, aide-de-camp to Major-General Lord George Beauclerk, at Inverif they show the least symptom of rebellion. They ness, Scotland. A portion of Wolfe's seal is still are a warlike tribe, and he is a cunning, resolute fellow himself. They should be narrowly watched ; and the party there should be well commanded.

Trapaud will have told you that I tried to take hold of that famous man with a very small detachment. I gave the sergeant orders, (in case he

adhering to this letter.

MY DEAR FRIEND,-If I had not been well convinced by your letter that you needed not my council to guide you, and that the steps you were taking were prudent and sensible beyond what I could advise, you should have heard from me something sooner;

has been in a very dangerous way. She is the only woman that I have any great concern about at this time.

I lodged with a Mrs. Grant, [this was while Wolfe was at Inverness,] who, perhaps, you know. She was very careful of me, and very obliging. If you see her, it will be doing me a pleasure if you will say that I remember it. Do you know Mrs. Forbes, of Culloden? I have a particular respect and esteem for that lady. She showed me a good deal of civility while I lay in the North. If you are acquainted, pray make my best compliments to her, and let me know how she is as to her health.

Au rest, you must be so kind to write now and then, and I will be punctual to answer, and give any intelligence of what is doing where I happen to be.

A letter directed for me at General Wolfe's, at Black Heath, Kent, will be forwarded to the remotest regions. I am, my dear friend, Your affectionate and faithful servant,

Lymington, 19th July, 1755.


for the public service and your honor and welldoing, are matters of high concern to me. I am sorry that I cannot take to myself the merit of having served you upon this occasion. I would have done it if it had been in my power; but I knew nothing of your new employment till Calcraft mentioned it to me. You are, I believe, so well in the duke's opinion, that Mr. Fox [father of the celebrated Charles James] had no difficulty to place you where you now are, and where, I am fully persuaded, you will acquit yourself handsomely. To study the character of your general, to conform to it, and by that means to gain his esteem and confidence, are such judicious measures that they cannot fail of good effects. If I am not mistaken, Lord George is a very even-tempered man, and one that will hearken to a reasonable proposal. If the French resent the affront put upon them by Mr. Boscawen, the war will come on hot and sudden; and they will certainly have an eye to the Highlands. Their friends and allies in that country were of great use to them in the last war. That famous diversion cost us great sums of money and many lives, and left pais bas to Saxe's mercy. I am much of your opinion, that, without a considerable aid of foreign troops, the Highlanders will never stir. I believe their resentments are strong, and the spirit of revenge prevalent amongst them; but the risk is too great without help; however, we ought to be cautious and vigilant. We ought to have good store of meal in the forts to feed the MY DEAR RICKSON,-Though I have matter troops in the winter, in case they be wanted; enough, and pleasure in writing a long letter, yet I plenty of intrenching tools and hatchets, for making must now be short. Your joy upon the occasion redoubts, and cutting palisades, &c.; and we of my new employment I am sure is very sincere, should be cautious not to expose the troops in small as is that which I feel when any good thing falls to parties, dispersed through the Highlands, when your share; but this new office does neither please there is the least apprehension of a commotion; a nor flatter me, as you may believe when I tell you few well-chosen posts in the middle of those clans that it was offered with the rank of colonel, which that are the likeliest to rebel, with a force sufficient the king, guided by the duke, [Cumberland,] afterto intrench and defend themselves, and with posi- wards refused. His royal highness' reasons tive orders never to surrender to the Highlanders, were plausible; he told the Duke of Bedford [who (though ever so numerous,) but either to resist in applied with warmth] that I was so young a lieutheir posts till relieved, or force their way through tenant-colonel, that it could not be done immedito the forts, would, I think, have lively effects. Aately-but I should have known it in time, that I hundred soldiers, in my mind, are an overmatch for five hundred of your Highland milice; and when they are told so, in a proper way, they believe it themselves.

It will be your business to know the exact strength of the rebel clans, and to inquire into the abilities of their leaders, especially of those that are abroad. There are people that can inform you. There ought to be an engineer at the forts to inform the general of what will be wanted for their defence, and to give directions for the construction of small redoubts where the general pleases to

order them.

Nobody can say what is to become of us yet. If troops are sent into Holland, we expect to be amongst the first. We are quartered at Winchester and Southampton; but turned out for the assizes. The fleet at Spithead expects orders to sail every hour. They are commanded by Sir E. Hawke, who has the admirals Bing and West to assist him. There are about 30 great ships, and some frigates, the finest fleet, I believe, that this nation ever put to sea, and excellently well manned. The marines embarked yesterday, to the number, I suppose, of about 1000 men; others will be taken up at Plymouth if they are wanted. Bockland's are to disembark. I imagine they are aboard by this


I am distressed about my poor old mother, who


A gap of two years. By this time his friend was acting deputy-quarter-master-general of Scotland, at Edinburgh.

might have excused myself from a very troublesome business which is quite out of my way. [What does this relate to?] I am glad you succeeded so happily, and got so soon rid of unpleasant guests, and ill to serve; it is ever the case that an unruly collection of raw men are ten times more troublesome than twice as many who know obedience. We are about to undertake something or other at a distance, and I am one of the party. [This relates to the subsequent unlucky descent on Rochefort.] I can't flatter you with a lively picture of my hopes as to the success of it; the reasons are so strong against us (the English) in whatever we take in hand, that I never expect any great matter; the chiefs, the engineers, and our wretched discipline, are the great and insurmountable obstructions. I doubt yet if there be any fixed plan: we wait for American intelligence, from whence the best is not expected, and shall probably be put into motion by that intelligence. I myself take the chance of a profession little understood, and less liked in this country. I may come off as we have done before; but I never expect to see either the poor woman my mother, or the old general, again; she is at present dangerously ill; she is infirm with age. Whether my going may hurry their departure, you are as good a judge as I am. Besides their loss, I have not a soul to take charge of my little affairs, and expect to find everything in

the utmost confusion, robbed and plundered by all that can catch hold of them.

I heartily wish you were fixed in the employment you now exercise; but, if DW is not misrepresented to me, you have everything to fear from his artifices and double-dealing. I wish I was strong enough to carry you through, I'd take you upon my back; but my people are away. Calcraft could serve you-no man better. He is the second or third potentate in this realm.

I may have an opportunity of speaking to Napier, but there W- governs almost alone; and we are not sharp enough to dive into the hearts of men. The nephew goes with us. I must have succumbed under the weight of some characters of this sort if I had not stood out in open defiance of their wicked powers. A man will not be ill used that will not bear it. Farewell, my honest little friend. I am ever your

Faithful and affectionate servant,

London, 21st July, 1757.


[Marked-" Answered, 2d Aug., 1757."]


people collected together so unfit for the business they were sent upon-dilatory, ignorant, irresolute, and some grains of a very unmanly quality, and very unsoldier-like or unsailorly-like. I have already been too imprudent: I have said too much, and people make me say ten times more than I ever uttered; therefore, repeat nothing out of my letter, nor name my name as the author of any one thing. The whole affair turned upon the impracticability of escalading Rochefort; and the two evidences brought to prove that the ditch was wet, (in opposition to the assertions of the chief engineer, who had been in the place,) are persons to whom, in my mind, very little credit should be given; without these evidences we must have landed, and must have marched to Rochefort; and it is my opinion that the place would have surrendered, or have been taken in forty-eight hours. It is certain that there was nothing in all that country to oppose 9,000 good foot-a million of Protestants, upon whom it is necessary to keep a strict eye, so that the garrisons could not venture to assemble against us, and no troops except the militia within any moderate distance of these parts.

Little practice in war, ease and convenience at home, great incomes and no wants, with no ambiThis letter was written immediately after tion to stir to action, are not the instruments to Wolfe's return from the unlucky descent on Roche-work a successful war withal; I see no prospect fort, in which he was one of no less than seven of better deeds; I know not where to look for naval and military officers, among whom the com-them, or from whom we may expect them.

mand was frittered away.

Many handsome things would have been done by the troops had they been permitted to act; as it is, Capt. Howe carried off all the honor of this enterprise it, notwithstanding what that scribbling. been pleased to lie about

that fort and the attack of it.

Very affectionately,
Black Heath, 5th Nov., 1757.

J. W.

The general and my mother are both gone to the Baths.

The king has given me the rank of colonel.

[Addressed "Captain Rickson, Deputy QuarterMaster-General of Scotland, at Edinburgh."] DEAR RICKSON,-I thank you very heartily for your welcome back. I am not sorry that I went, notwithstanding what has happened; one may alThis disaster in North America,* unless the ways pick up something useful from amongst the French have driven from their anchors in the harmost fatal errors. I have found out that an admiral bor of Louisbourg, is of the most fatal kind; whatshould endeavor to run into an enemy's port imme-ever diminishes our naval forcetends to our ruin and diately after he appears before it; that he should destruction. God forbid that any accident should anchor the transport ships and frigates as close as befall our fleet in the bay. The duke's resignacan be to the land; that he should reconnoitre and tion may be reckoned an addition to our misforobserve it as quick as possible, and lose no time in tunes; he acted a right part, but the country will getting the troops on shore; that previous direc-suffer by it.-Yours, my dear Rickson, tions should be given in respect to landing the troops, and a proper disposition made for the boats of all sorts, appointing leaders and fit persons for conducting the different divisions. On the other hand, experience shows me that, in an affair depending upon vigor and despatch, the generals should settle their plan of operations, so that no time may be lost in idle debate and consultations, when the sword should be drawn; that pushing on smartly is the road to success, and more particularly so in an affair of this nature-(a surprise)-that nothing is to be reckoned an obstacle to your undertaking, which is not found really so upon tryal; that in war something must be allowed to chance and fortune, seeing it is in its nature hazardous, and an option of difficulties; that the greatness of an object should come under consideration, opposed to the impediments that lie in the way; that the honor of one's country is to have some weight, and that, in particular circumstances and times, the loss of 1,000 men is rather an advantage to a nation William Henry, on the south side of Lake George, with *This relates to the capture, by the French, of Fort than otherwise, seeing that gallant attempts raise all the artillery, vessels, and boats, on 9th Aug., 1757, its reputation, and make it respectable; whereas about three months prior to Wolfe's letter. The gov the contrary appearances sink the credit of a coun-ernor, Monro, had a garrison of 3,000 men, and there was try, ruin the troops, and create infinite uneasiness a covering army of 4.000 besides, under General Webb, and discontent at home. I know not what to say, my dear R, or how to account for our proceedings, unless I own to you that there never was


His friend was still deputy-quarter-master-general of Scotland, at Edinburgh.

DEAR RICKSON,-Calcraft told me he had prepared a memorial for you, and was to give it in to Sir John Ligonier. I had apprized Col. Hotham, the deputy-adjutant-general, and had bespoke his that he has not seen the memorial, and wonders it assistance. Hotham assured me, two days ago, was not presented. Calcraft must have some rea

obstinacy, would not advance to Monro's assistance, who but the latter, by the most unpardonable neglect and had accordingly to capitulate. Well might Wolfe speak of it as a great "disaster."

sons for the delay, which I will inquire into to- | morrow; and if he has any difficulties about it, I will carry it myself. My services in this matter, and my credit with the reigning powers, are not worth your acceptance; but such as they allow it to be, you are as welcome to as any living man. I can assure you that D is double, and would shove you aside to make way for a tenth cousin; it becomes my Lord G. Beauclerk (then commander-in-chief in Scotland) to confirm you in your office, by asking and procuring a commission. If he is satisfied with your management, it is his duty to do it; these mealy chiefs give up their just rights, and with them their necessary authority. The commander in Scotland is the fittest person to recommend, and the best judge of the merits of those that serve under him. Though to all appearance I am in the very centre of business, yet nobody (from the indolent inattention of my temper) knows less of what is going on where I myself am not concerned. The proceedings in Parliament, intrigues of the parties, and the management of public affairs, are as much unknown to me as the business of a divan or seraglio. I live amongst men without desiring to be acquainted with their concerns; things have their ordinary course, and I pass on with the current unheeding. Being of the profession of arms, I would seek all occasions to serve; and therefore have thrown myself in the way of the American war, though I know that the very passage threatens my life, [alluding to his indifferent health,] and that my constitution must be utterly ruined and undone, and this from no motive either of avarice or ambition. I expect to embark in about a fortnight. I wish you success in your affairs, health and peace. I am, dear Rickson, your affectionate and faithful JAMES WOLFE.


Black Heath, 12th January, 1758. [Wolfe's seal is still adhering to this letter-it is the figure of a human head, with a fillet of laurel, gathered into a knot behind.]


Written on the eve of sailing from Portsmouth, on the expedition against Louisbourg.

DEAR RICKSON, The title of Brigadier, [Pitt had conferred it on him,] which extends to America only, has no other advantage than throwing me into service in an easy manner for myself, and such as my constitution really requires; our success alone will determine the more solid favors, for it is possible to deserve very well, and to be extremely ill received. The state of public affairs is such that some measures must be pursued which prudence or military knowledge perhaps might not dictate. We shall nave (if accident don't prevent it) a great force this year in America, and the country has a right to expect some powerful efforts proportioned to the armaments. Success is in the hands of Providence, but it is in every man's own power to do his part handsomely. I did not know that Barré was your friend, nor even your acquaintance [this is one of the supposed authors of the celebrated letters of Junius.] Now that I do know it, I shall value him the more upon that account; by accident I heard of his worth and good sense, and shall have, I trust, good reason to thank the man that mentioned him. Nay, I am already overpaid by the little I did, by drawing out of his obscurity so worthy a gentleman; I never

saw his face till very lately, nor never spoke ten words to him before I ventured to propose him as a major of brigade. You may be sure that my information came from the best hands.

I wish your success most heartily; it would be a lasting satisfaction to me if I had power to forward it; you must give me leave to tell you, which indeed I should not do, that I have pressed it warmly to Lord G. Sackville, who has at present the power in his hands; I tried the field marshal, [Lord Ligonier, who had succeeded the Duke of Cumberland, as commander-in-chief,] but I have little weight there, and for your sake, I wish I had more with Lord George. Write me, now and then, a letter; with all the Scotch news, and your own sentiments upon things as they fall out. Calcraft will forward your letters, and they will be received as so many marks of your affection and remembrance. We embark in three or four days. Barré and I have the great apartment of a three-decked ship to revel in; but with all this space and this fresh air, I am sick to death. Time, I suppose, will deliver me from these sufferings; though, in former trials, I never could overcome it. I thank you for your kind wishes, and return them most sincerely.—I am, ever, my dear friend,

Your faithful and affectionate servant,

Portsmouth, 7 Feb., 1758.


Written after Wolfe's return to England, from the capture of Louisbourg.

MY DEAR FRIEND,-Your letter dated in September, as well as the last you did me the favor to write, are both received, and with the greatest satisfaction. I do not reckon that we have been fortunate this year in America. Our force was so superior to the enemy's, that we might hope for greater success; but it pleased the Disposer of all things to check our presumption, by permitting Mr. Abercrombie to hurry on that precipitate attack of Ticonderoga, in which he failed with loss. By the situation of that fort, by the superiority of our naval force there, and by the strength of our army, which could bear to be weakened by detachments, it seems to me to have been no very difficult matter to have obliged the Marquis de Montcalm to have laid down his arms, and consequently to have given up all Canada. In another circumstance, too, we may be reckoned unlucky. The squadron of men-of-war under De Chafferult failed in their attempt to get into the harbor of Louisbourg, where inevitably they would have shared the fate of those that did, which must have given an irretrievable blow to the marine of France, and delivered Quebec into our hands, if we chose to go up and demand it. Amongst ourselves be it said that our attempt to land where we did [alluding to the Louisbourg affair] was rash and injudicious, our success unexpected (by me) and undeserved. There was no prodigious exertion of courage in the affair; an officer and 30 men would have made it impossible to get ashore where we did. Our proceedings in other respects were as slow and tedious as this undertaking was illadvised and desperate; but this for your private information only. We lost time at the siege, still more after the siege, and blundered from the beginning to the end of the campaign. My Lord Howe's death (who was truly a great man) [he was killed in a skirmish in the woods, connected with the repulse of the British in their attack on Ticonderoga]

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