and lay at anchor, as if bent on some other object a bayonet charge at double quick time; but Wolfe, entirely. A party was sent by Montcalm to watch desiring his troops to remain firm, and reserve him. But suddenly, one dark night, the Admiral, their fire till the enemy came to close quarters, swiftly, and in profound silence, glided down the placed himself at the head of the English grenarapid current, spreading out all his boats, filled diers, and, by voice and gesture, encouraged them with troops to be landed under the selected heights. to complete what had been so gloriously begun. Nothing could exceed the caution, promptitude, and By disease and other casualties, his whole effective skill, with which this was effected. The boats force was now reduced to scarcely 5000 men, being were actually seen and challenged by the French less than one half of his opponents. sentinels along shore; but, by the consummate The shock of battle came. The British poured address of an officer acquainted with French usages, in volley after volley, at a short distance, with the sentries were deceived into the idea that these murderous effect. But still the conflict raged. were boats with secret supplies for the garrison; Both fought desperately. Wolfe stood conspicuand thus the whole were allowed to pass quietly ous in the front ranks, giving his orders, and enand unmolested. The strength of the current and couraging his men, when a musket-ball hit him tide carried the boats a little way beyond the point in the wrist. Wrapping his handkerchief round Wolfe had intended; but they were brought-to at the wound, he continued his directions with përa place where a narrow pathway, or track, led up, fect coolness. He ordered a charge, at the point surmounted by a captain's guard. The English of the bayonet, on the already wavering French soldiers silently sprang on the slippery ledge at columns, heading it in person, when he received the bottom. Not a word or whisper escaped. another ball, in the upper part of the abdomen, as All knew the value, at this critical moment, of he cheered his soldiers on. Even this more sericaution; and none disregarded their favorite gen-ous wound did not for a moment deprive him of his eral's previous earnest admonitions on this point. calm self-possession, and he was gallantly leading Among the very first to land was himself. the charge, when a third and fatal bullet, probaknew what they were to perform. bly from the same rifle, struck him in the breast, and he fell. It was with difficulty he allowed a party of his grieved soldiers to carry him to the rear. The others, enraged at the fate of their beloved leader, sprang on the enemy, and carried everything before them. Wolfe was fast dying; the crimson streams flowed from the three severe wounds, yet his dimmed eye looked towards the battle, and his ear listened to the shouts of the combatants, the sharp roll of musketry, and the roar of cannon. Extended on the ground, and surrounded by a group of hardy warriors, whose iron visages were relaxed with profound sorrow, and down whose weather-beaten cheeks the seldom shed tears trickled, as they hung over him who was about to leave them forever, he anxiously inquired the progress of the engagement. officer suddenly called out-"They run. how they run!" Wolfe, who was in a halffainting-fit, hearing the exulting shout, eagerly asked-" Who run?" It was answered-"The French; they give way in all directions!" gleam of satisfaction played for an instant on the dying general's countenance, and he feebly exclaimed-" Then I die content.' His last words Montcalm was thunderstruck. He at first re- were an emphatic order for Webb's regiment to fused to believe that the hostile troops could be move down instantly to the St. Charles river, there; but, convinced of the fatal reality, he now and secure the bridge there, to cut off the enemy's saw no alternative, with an English fleet threaten- retreat; after uttering which he expired in the ing him on one side, and an army opposite his arms of Frazer, his favorite orderly soldier. The most vulnerable point on the other, than to leave next officer in command, Monckton, was dangerhis formidable position, and give battle on the ously wounded; but the victory was most ably plain. Issuing from the ramparts with the flower followed up and completed by Townshend, a of his soldiers, and leaving his field-pieces behind, talented and judicious young brigadier. Montcalm quickly advanced to meet Wolfe, lining By a singular coincidence, the brave Montcalm the bushes, in front of his position, with picked also fell, mortally wounded. With his dying marksmen, and crowds of Indians endeavoring, at breath he addressed General Townshend, and the same time, to turn the English flank. Head-recommended the French prisoners to "that gening his old French soldiers, Montcalm came on to erous humanity by which the British nation has

All The foremost to ascend the dizzy heights was a Highland regiment. Wolfe had often before seen the daring of the kilted soldiers. Slinging their muskets across their backs, they ascended the cliffs with all the agility of chamois hunters, using their hands more than their feet; grasping the projecting wild bushes, and clambering up by the angles on the face of the rock, till they finally reached the summit, where they surprised the officers in command of the French picquet, and a number of the soldiers; the rest having fled in terror at the unexpected appearance of Scotia's plumes and stalwart sons. The alarm was quickly spread; but crowds of British soldiers, hastily making their way up the now unguarded narrow pathway before noticed, were instantly formed in battle array, by Wolfe, on the broad plateau, ready to act; and the key of the position was fairly gained. Several pieces of cannon, in charge of the French guard, had been seized, and some English guns were quickly slung by ropes, and hoisted up to the British position. By dawn of the memorable 13th of September, 1759, Wolfe's forces stood, ready for action, on the Heights of Abraham.




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The effects of this decisive victory were, the capitulation of Quebec; and, soon after, the whole of Canada was ceded to the British crown.

When the news reached England, the national feeling was one of mingled exultation and sorrow, at the brilliant results on the one hand, and the loss of the gallant Wolfe on the other. Pitt made a most eloquent appeal to Parliament on the complete success of the campaign, and spoke of the transcendent merits of the fallen general, in language which drew tears from all who heard him. He concluded with a motion that an address be presented to his majesty, praying that he would order a monument to Wolfe's memory in Westminster Abbey. This was unanimously agreed to; and that ancient edifice, the solemn depository of the undying names of the good and the great, had committed to its charge another marble memorial, recording the worth of him who fell in Britain's cause, covered with glory, and whose name is embalmed in imperishable renown and a nation's gratitude

Wolfe's father, the brave old general, died only a few days before the arrival of the news; and the mother of England's young hero had to lament, at one and the same time, in her old age, the double loss of her husband and their only son. A beautiful cenotaph was erected to the conqueror of Quebec, in the ancient and picturesque church of his native town, where he had spent the happy days of his childhood.

"To Captain RICKSON, of Col. LASCELLE'S
Regiment, to be left at Lucas's
Coffee House,

Dublin, Ireland.” Part of Wolfe's seal is still adhering. DEAR RICKSON,-When I saw you writing upon the back of a letter, I concluded it was in consequence of the mandate I sent you by Lt. Herris, of this Regiment (that letter he carried upon your account and mine, not his own, as you will easily discover ); but I find myself more in your debt than I expected. 'T was your desire to please, and to express the part you take in your friend's good fortune. These were the motives that persuaded you to do what you knew would be agreeable. You'll believe me, when I tell you that, in my esteem, few of what we call advantages in life would be worth acceptance, if none were to partake them with us. What a wretch is he who lives for himself alone! his only aim. It is the first degree of happiness here below, that the honest, the brave, and estimable part of mankind, or, at least, some amongst them, share our success. There were sevif this had not happened [promotion] to prevent my eral reasons concurring to have sent me into Italy, intentions. One was to avoid the mortifying circumstance of going, a captain, to Inverness. Disappointed of my sanguine hopes, humbled to an excess, I could not remain in the army and refuse to do the duty of my office while I staid in Britain. Many things, I thought, were, and still are wanting to my education. Certain never to reap any advantages that way with the regiment; on the contrary, your barren battalion conversation rather blunts the faculties than improves; my youth and vigor bestowed idly in Scotland; my temper daily changed with discontent; and from a man become martin or a monster.

Here follows a page relating to private matters, which must be held sacred; but in the course of the confidential and unreserved statements which Wolfe makes to his friend, he incidentally alludes to his age as being then only twenty-two years and three months.

A third monument has been erected on the Heights of Abraham, to the joint memories of Wolfe and Montcalm, the conqueror and the vanquished both the impersonation of military virtue and heroism; and each distinguished by those amiable qualities which eminently fitted them, had they lived, to sheathe their swords in the close embrace of friendship. Finally, the subject of Wolfe's fall, on the crimsoned field, has afforded Cornwallis is preparing all things for Nova scope for the sculptor and the painter, more partic-Scotia; his absence will over-bother me; my stay ularly to the fine genius of West, in his admirable picture of that never-to-be-forgotten military event.-Fama semper vivat.

This rapid sketch of Wolfe's career may enable the reader now to peruse, with more interest and effect, the little packet of his letters alluded to in the outset. These are twelve in number, and embrace the period between 1749 and 1758, a space of nine years. The letters are written in a small and remarkably neat hand; and the reader will, doubtless, admire the fine sentiment and spirit which they contain, addressed, as they were, to a bosom friend. The first was from Glasgow, or rather from his lodgings in the antique village of Camlachie, already referred to.


must be everlasting; and thou know'st, Hal, how I hate compulsion. I'd rather be Major, upon halfpay, by my soul! These are all new men to me, and many of them but of low mettle. Besides, I am by no means ambitious of command, when that command obliges me to reside far from my own, surrounded either with flatterers or spies, and in a country not at all to my taste. Would to God you had a company in this regiment, that I might at wallis asked to have Loftus with him. The duke last find some comfort in your conversation. Cornlaughed at the request, and refused him.

You know I am but a very indifferent scholar. When a man leaves his studies at fifteen, he will never be justly called a man of letters. I am endeavoring to repair the damages of my education, and have a person to teach me Latin and the mathematics; two hours in a day, for four or five months, this may help me a little.

If I were to judge of a country by those just come out of it, Ireland will never be agreeable to This letter bears the old-fashioned post-mark-me. You are in the midst, and see the brightest Glasgow, pd. 2d.," and is addressed on the out- and most shining, in other than in a soldier's charside thusacter. I wish it were more pleasing to you than

have a prosperous issue. I think it is vastly worth your while to apply yourself to business, you that are so well acquainted with it; and, without any compliment, I may venture to assert that Cornwallis has few more capable to do him, and the public, considerable service, than yourself.

you mention, because probably you will stay there desire to see the propagation of freedom and truth, 1 some time. I am very anxious about the success of this underThe men here are civil, designing, and treacher-taking, and do most sincerely wish that it may ous, with their immediate interest always in view; they pursue trade with warmth, and a necessary mercantile spirit, arising from the baseness of their other qualifications. The women coarse, cold, and cunning, forever inquiring after men's circumstances. They make that the standard of their good breeding. You may imagine it would not be difficult for me to be pretty well received here, if I took pains, having some of the advantages necessary to recommend me to their favor, but My dear Rickson,

Your affectionate friend,

Glasgow, April 2d, 1749.



I beg you will tell me at large the condition of your affairs, and what kind of order there is in your community; the notions that prevail; the method of administering justice; the distribution of lands, and their cultivation; the nations that compose the colony, and who are the most numerous; if under military government, how long that is to continue; and what sect in religious affairs is the most prevailing. If ever you advise upon this last subject, remember to be moderate. I suppose the governor has some sort of council, and should be glad to know what it is composed of. The writ-southern colonies will be concerned in this settlement, and have probably sent some able men to assist you with their advice, and with a proper plan of administration. Tell me likewise what climate you live in, and what soil you have to do with : whether the country is mountainous and woody, or plain; if well watered.

This letter is dated in 1750, but the place, the outside address, and several other parts, are crumbled away. Probably, however, it was still ten from Glasgow.

DEAR RICKSON,-You were embarked long before I thought you ready for your expedition, [to Nova Scotia,] and sailed before I could imagine you on board. I intended to have bid you farewell, and sent my good wishes to attend you. Indeed, I was not without hopes of hearing from my friend before he went off; for upon such changes he seldom forgot to make me acquainted with his destination. I am not entirely indifferent to what befalls you, and should have been glad to know how such an undertaking as this is, agreed with your way of thinking; and whether, after a good deal of service, you would not rather have sat down in peace, and rest; or if your active spirit prompts you to enterprise, and pushes you to pursuits new and uncommon; whether this, (the expedition,) certainly great in its nature, suits your inclination. Since I cannot be clearly informed of these matters till I hear from you, I shall content myself with entertaining some conjectures that are favorable to your interest. You are happy in a governor; and he'll be happy to have one near him that can be so serviceable to him as you have it in your power to be. I dare say you are on good terms together, and mutual aid will confirm your former friendships. He will require from you industry and assiduity; and, in return, you may expect his confidence and trust. I look upon his situation as requiring one of his very way of thinking, before all things else; for to settle a new colony, justice, humanity, and disinterestedness are the high requisites; the rest follows from the excellent nature of our government, which extends itself in full force to its remotest dependency. In what a state of felicity are our American colonies, compared to those of other nations; and how blessed are the Americans that are in our neighborhood above those that border upon the French and Spaniards. A free people cannot oppress; but despotism and bigotry find enemies among the most innocent. It is to the eternal honor of the English nation that we have helped to heal the wound given by the Spaniards to mankind, by their cruelty, pride, and covetousness. Within the infiuence of our happy government, all nations are in security. The barrier you are to form, will, if it takes place, strengthen ourselves, protect and support all our adherents; and, as I pretend to have some concern for the general good, and a vast

I see by a map (now before me) that you are
between [crumbled away in the letter] of latitude;
in most parts of Europe the air is
degrees, because we are sheltered by the pro-
of Norway and Lapland
from the north winds. I am afraid you are more
exposed; your great cold continent to the north
some severe effects upon you.
Direct to me at your agent's
If you
think I can serve you, or be of any use, I *
I will send you anything you have a mind for,
directions to have it sent, for
I expect
to go abroad for eight or ten
prevent you

months; do not let the
from writing. I set out for London next
if it is allowed, shall be in less than forty days
Metz, in Lorraine, where I propose
to pass the winter; you will easily guess my aim
in that. I intend to ramble in the summer along
the Rhine into Switzerland, and back through
France and the Netherlands, and perhaps more.
hope you have a good provision of books.
ford has published his; and there is a Frenchman
has told me many excellent truths, in two volumes
entitled, "L'Esprit des Loix." [Montesquieu.] It
is a piece of writing that would be of great use
where you are. Will you have him?



Tell Cornwallis that I thank him for making me a lieutenant-colonel (which, by-the-by, you did not take the least notice of); if I was to rise by his merit, as upon this occasion, I should soon be at the top of the list. He promised to write to some of us, but has not; they are not the less ardent for his prosperity; and the whole corps unites in one common wish for his welfare and success. Pray tell him so, as you may do it safely.

Your old corps comes back from Gibraltar next summer. Do you know that C has got a company over T- by E's death? I will correspond constantly with you in whatever part of the world we happen to be thrown, provided you do not force me, by neglect, to leave off writing. We have but this one way left to preserve the remembrance of each other as lively as I could wish, and as I hope you do. The old general, [his father,]

your friend, preserves his health, and is
he has often wished to have you again in his regi-
ment. Farewell! I am, most affectionately, my
dear Rickson,


Your faithful friend,



Old Burlington Street, March 19, 1751.

communicate our thoughts, and express that truly unalterable serenity of affection that is found among friends, and nowhere else. I conceive it no less comfortable to you. I believe that no man can have a sincerer regard for you than myself, nor can any man wish to serve and assist you with more ardor; and the disappointment you speak of affects me greatly, and the more, as I have been told that you lived with Cornwallis, and, consequently, had some employment near him, that must be creditable DEAR RICKSON,-I writ to you six or eight all the integrity, diligence, and skill, that I know and profitable, which I imagined you filled, with months ago; but as you took no notice of my letter, I conclude you did not receive it; nay, I'm you possessed of. I cannot otherwise account for almost sure you did not receive it, because I asked the preference given to Mr. than that there a favor of you which I think you would not have has been an early promise, or some prevailing refused me. I desired you to inform me of the recommendations from England that Cornwallis could not resist. However, if I was governor, condition of your new colony, [Nova Scotia,] (which I have much at heart,) and was not a little curious methinks I should choose about my person some to know your particular employment and manner affairs of a new colony (situated as yours is) as experience, and military ability, as requisite in the of living. Though I have deal to say to you, I can't speak it just now, for I 'm confined in point any branch of knowledge whatever. This disapof time; but as I have the same regard and friend-pointment is followed by a resolution in you that I ship for you that I always had, I have the same desire to cultivate our good understanding. Write to me, then, and forget nothing that you imagine can give me light into your affairs. I am going to Scotland in ten days; your agent will forward a letter to me there.

The young gentleman who delivers my letter has served in the regiment with me. Want of precaution, and not want of honesty, obliges him to leave it. You'll learn his story from Cornwallis. I desire you to countenance and assist him a little, and I hope you'll not think any services that you may do him thrown away. May you be healthy and happy. I shall always wish it with great truth. I am, dear Rickson,

Your affectionate friend,
[This letter has a marking on it-" answered 22d
July, 175."]


[Of eleven pages in length.]

from a life that cannot but be disagreeable, and approve of greatly, because it will release you take it to be a thing much easier conceived than place you where you will be well received. But I effected; for though I grant that


a beast, and fit only to hunt the wildest of all the wild Indians, yet, his consent to the change, I doubt, would be very difficult to obtain, though everything else went smoothly on, and you know without it the matter rests. You have done well to write my father. He is extremely disposed to do you any good office, and shall take care to put him in mind, and excite him by all the motives that will touch him nearest, to assist you.

I thank you for partaking with me in the satisfaction of a promotion. You found your expectations, from my future fortune, upon the best grounds, my love and thorough sense of your worth; but I would not wish you should wait for my power. I should blush to see myself in the capacity. Take my inclinations and good wishes in the mean time, and believe that whatever falls to my share you will have a demand upon. If you look round and see my powerful rivals and competitors, examine who and what they are: we must both think that a little moderation in our views is very becoming, and very consistent with my situation. I believe you are of opinion with me, that a great deal of good fortune has fallen to my share already. I'll tell you only one instance. M—, and the then major of your present regiment, were people at the top of the list for lieutenant-colonels, and I for major. M- started first,

Banff, 9th June, 1751. MY DEAR FRIEND,-I am prepared to assist you in your apology whenever you think it requisite; but I desire you will never assign that as a reason for not writing, which, in my opinion, should prompt you for it. Attachments between men of certain characters do generally arise from something alike in their natures, and should never fall from a certain degree of firmness, that makes them the same all the world over, and incapable of any diminution. I have (as you justly acknowledge) a perse-I followed, &c. verance in friendship, that time, nor distance, nor You have given me a very satisfactory account circumstance, can defeat-nay, even neglect can of the settlement, as far as you have observed, or hardly conquer it; and you are just as warm, and as have had opportunity to inquire. Till your letter near me, in North America, as you would be upon came, I understood that we were lords and proprithe spot. I writ to you lately from London, and etors of the north coast of Fundy Bay-for there 's sent my letter by one that I recommended to you a vast tract of country between that and the River for countenance. I hope what has befallen him of St. Lawrence. It appears to me that Acadia will be as a shield against accidents of that sort [Nova Scotia] is near an island, and the spot where for the future. When I writ that letter, your poor you are, a very narrow space between the Gulf and friend was in the utmost distress [describes his ill- Bay. If so, I conclude your post will be greatly ness;] otherwise you should have had more of me. improved; and, instead of the shallow works that It is not an hour since I received your letter. I you describe, something substantial will be erected, shall answer all the parts of it as they stand in capable of containing a large garrison, with inhabtheir order; and you see I lose no time, because in itants trained to arms, in expectation of future a remote and solitary part of the globe. ["Banff wars with France, when I foresee great attempts to wit."] I often experience the infinite satisfac- to be made in your neighborhood. When I say tion there is in the only one way that is open to this, I mean in North America. I hope it is true

what is mentioned in the newspapers, that a strong naval armament is preparing for your assistance. I wish they would increase your regiment with drafts from the troops here. I could send you some very good little soldiers. If our proposal is a good one, I will shorten the work, and lessen the expense. The present schemes of economy [alluding to the ill-considered views of the Duke of Newcastle's administration] are destructive of great undertakings, narrow in the views, and ruinous in the consequence. I was in the House of Cominons this winter, when great sums of money were proposed for you, and granted readily enough, but nothing said of any increase of troops. Mr. Pelham [secretary of state] spoke very faintly upon the subject; wished gentlemen would well weigh the importance of these undertakings, before they offered them for public approbation, and seemed to intimate that it might probably produce a quarrel with our everlasting irreconcilable adversary; this I took to be a bad prognostic; a minister cool in so great an affair, it is enough to freeze up the whole! but perhaps there might be a concealed manoeuvre under these appearances, as, in case of accidents, "I am not to blame," "I was forced to carry it on," and so forth; in the mean time, I hope they are vigorous in supporting our claims. The country is in all shapes better then we imagined it, and the climate less severe; the extent of our territory, perhaps, won't take a vast deal of time to clear; the woods you speak of are, I suppose, to the west of Sheganecto, and within the limits that the French ascribe for themselves, and usurp. Yours is now the dirtiest, as well as the most insignificant and unpleasant branch of military operation; no room for courage and skill to exert itself, no hope of ending it by a decisive blow, and a perpetual danger of assassination; these circumstances discourage the firmest minds. Brave men, when they see the least room for conquest, think it easy, and generally make it so; but they grow impatient with perpetual disadvantages. I think is a loss; his loggerhead was fit enough for these kind of expeditions, and would save much fatigue to better men. I should imagine that two or three independent Highland companies might be of use; they are hardy, intrepid, accustomed to a rough country, and

here in the midst of Popery and Jacobitism, surrounded on every side as I am with this itchy race. I don't understand what is meant by the wooden forts at Halifax. I have a poor conceit of wooden fortifications, and would wish to have them changed for a rampart of earth, the rest in time; it is probable that the great attention that must be given at first to building the habitations and clearing the ground about the town, left no interval for other work; but I hope to hear, in your next letter, that our principal city (Halifax) is considerably improved in strength. You, gentlemen, too, with your parapet three or four feet thick, that a heavy shower would dissolve, you ought to increase it, and put yourselves into a state of security. You appear to be the barrier and bulwark of our settlements on the land, and should be lodged in a sufficient fortress, and with an eye to enterprise. I understand, by your account, that the post you occupy is at a very small distance from the end of the Bay; and should be glad to know how far that is from the nearest part of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, or from what (in the map) appears to be a lake, or harbor, communicating with that gulf. I rejoice much that you command that detachment

with which your lieutenant-colonel marched; the Indians might have had courage; in that case you would have overcome them in battle under the eye of your chief; as it was, he saw you well disposed to fight-perhaps I am talking at random, but it is conformable to the idea I have of this Colonel Lawrence, whose name we often see in the papers. I suppose him to be amongst the first officers of the expedition, high-minded himself, and a judge of it in others; his ready march to the enemy marks the first, and his being the head of your undertaking gives one an opinion of his judgment, if 't is to his advantage. I desire you to let me have his character at full length; perhaps there's a strong mixture, as it generally happens in ardent men-in that case let 's have the best fully, and the other slightly touched. I am mighty sorry that you are not so linked in with some of your brethren as to form an intimacy and confidence; without it, the world is a solitude, and what must your part of it be? I pity you very heartily, for I am sure you are very ready to mingle with a good disposition. T is doubly a misfortune to be banished without the relief of books, or possibility of reading; the only amends that can be made to us that are sequestered in the lonely and melancholy spots, is that we can fill up part of our time with study. When I am in Scotland I look upon myself as an exile-with respect to the inhabitants I am so, for I dislike 'em much; 't is then I pick up my best store, and try to help an indifferent education, and slow faculties, and I can say that I have really acquired more knowledge that way than in all my former life. I would, by all means, have you get home before the next winter, but I don't approve in the least of the resolution you seem to have taken, rather than continue in that service. Do everything in your power to change, but don't leave the army, as you must, when you go upon half-pay. If there's any female in the case, any reasonable scheme for marriage, I have nothing to say; that knocks down all my arguments; they have other sorts of passions to support them. In reality, the most I can offer (were you unbiassed) would not amount to weighty matter, for I see no early appearance whereon to mould a bait for your ambition; yet I cannot consent to your leaving us entirely, in the hopes of fairer days. If I did not love you personally, and wish your happiness very heartily, I should advise you to stay where you are, and would say you ought to be kept there; and give, as a reason for saying so, that I do think the infancy of a colony has need of able hands, civil and military, to sustain it, and I should be for sacrificing you and all the men of worth, to the general good. You speak of a Mr. B, the engineer; pray, say a word or two of his capacity, and tell me if there are amongst you any connoisscurs in that business.

Is the Island of St. John in the possession of the French, or do we occupy it? It would be unpardonable in me if I omitted to send you intelligence of what is stirring amongst us; I mean if I kept from you anything that comes to my knowledge, but in truth we are here almost as much in the dark as to public transactions as can be conceived; however, I picked up some account of the act for settling the regency, and as, perhaps, you have not seen it, it will be well worth your perusal; it is a subject of no small importance-as follows:-That the Princess of Wales [mother of the future George the Third, then a minor] is to be guardian of the Prince of Wales, [George Third, whose father,

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