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in the scheme of providence was to go range, and yet they were incapable of with Delia while he himself went with firing a shot for themselves. They Francie, and nothing would have in had a kind of social humility: it apduced George Flack to disfigure that peared never to have occurred to them equation.

that, added to their amiability, their The young man was professionally money gave them a value. This used so occupied with other people's affairs to strike George Flack on certain that it should doubtless be mentioned occasions when he came back to find to his praise that he still managed to them in the places where he had have affairs—or at least an affair-of dropped them while he rushed off to his own. That affair was Francie give a turn to one of his screws. They Dosson, and he was pleased to per never played him false, never wearied ceive how little she cared what had of waiting ; always sat patient and become of Mr. and Mrs. Rosenheim, submissive, usually at a café to which and Master Samuel and Miss Cora. he had introduced them, or in a row He counted all the things she didn't of chairs on the boulevard, or in the

about-her soft inadvertent Tuileries or the Champs Elysées. eyes helped him to do that; and they He introduced them to many cafés, footed up so, as he would have said, in different parts of ‘Paris, being carethat they gave him a pleasant sense ful to choose those which (in his view) of a free field. If she had so few in young ladies might frequent with proterests, there was the greater possibility priety, and there were two or three in that a young man of bold conceptions the neighbourhood of their hotel where and cheerful manners might become they became frequent and familiar one. She had usually the air of wait figures. As the late spring days grew ing for something with a sort of warmer and brighter they usually sat amused resignation, while tender, shy, outside on the “terrace”- the little indefinite little fancies hummed in

expanse of small tables at the door of her brain; so that she would perhaps the establishment, where Mr. Flack, recognize in him the reward of patience. on the return, could descry them from George Flack was aware that he afar at their post in exactly the same exposed his friends to considerable position to which he had committed fatigue: he brought them back pale them.

them. They complained of no satiety and taciturn from suburban excursions, in watching the many-coloured moveand from wanderings often rather aim ment of the Parisian streets; and less and casual among the boulevards if some of the features in the panoand avenues of the town. He regarded rama were base they were only so in them at such moments with compla a version which the imagination of cency, however, for these were hours of our friends was incapable of supplying. diminished resistance : he had an idea George Flack considered that he was that he should be able eventually to rendering a positive service to Mr. circumvent Delia if he could only Dosson: wouldn't the old gentleman watch for some time when she was have sat all day in the court anyway? tired. He liked to make them all feel And wasn't the boulevard better than helpless and dependent, and this was the court? It was his theory, too, not difficult with people who were so that he flattered and caressed Mismodest and artless, so unconscious of Francie's father, for there was no one the boundless power of wealth. Senti to whom he had furnished more copious ment, in our young man, was not a details about the affairs, the projects scruple nor a source of weakness; but and prospects, of the Reverberator. he thought it really touching, the little He had left no doubt in the old gentlethese good people knew of what they man's mind as to the race he himseli could do with their money. They had intended to run, and Mr. Dosson used in their hands a weapon of infinite to say to him every day, the first

No. 340.-VOL. LVII.

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thing, “Well, where have you got to and it never occurred to her that a now ?" as if he took a real interest. repetition of lovers rubs off a young George Flack narrated his interviews, lady's delicacy. She felt herself a to which Delia and Francie gave at born old maid, and never dreamed of tention only in case they knew some a lover of her own-he would have thing of the persons on whom the been dreadfully in her way; but she young emissary of the Reverberator dreamed of love as something in its had conferred this distinction ; whereas nature very delicate.

All the same Mr. Dosson listened, with his tolerant she discriminated : it did lead to someinterposition of, “Is that so?" and thing after all, and sbe desired that “Well, that's good," just as submis for Francie it should not lead to a sively when he heard of the celebrity union with Mr. Flack. She looked at in question for the first time.

such a union in the light of that other In conversation with his daughters view which she kept as yet to herself, Mr. Flack was frequently the theme, but which she was ready to produce so though introduced much more by the soon as the right occasion should come young ladies than by himself, and up; and she told her sister that she especially by Delia, who announced at would never speak to her again if she an early period that she knew what should let this young man suppose he wanted and that it wasn't in the And here she always paused, plunging least what she wanted. She amplified again into impressive reticence. this statement very soon—at least as * Suppose what?” Francie asked, regards her interpretation of Mr. as if she were totally unacquainted Flack's designs: a certain mystery (which indeed she really was) with still hung about her own, which, as the suppositions of young men. she intimated, had much more to re • Well, you'll see, when he begins commend them. Delia's vision of the

to say things you won't like.” This danger as well as the advantage of sounded ominous on Delia's part, but being a pretty girl was closely con she had in reality very little apprehenpected (and this was natural) with the sion; otherwise she would have risen idea of “

engagement”: this idea was against the custom adopted by Mr. in a manner complete in itself, and Flack of perpetually coming round: her imagination failed, in the oddest she would have given her attention way, to carry it into the next stage. (though it struggled in general unShe wanted her sister to be engaged, successfully with all this side of their but she didn't at all wish her to be life) to some prompt means of getting married, and she had not clearly made away from Paris. She told her father up her mind as to how Francie was to what in her view the correspondent of enjoy both the promotion and the the Reverberator was “after” ; but it arrest.

a secret source of must be added that she did not make humiliation to her that there had as him feel very strongly on the matter. yet, to her knowledge, been no one This, however, was not of importance, with whom her sister had exchanged with her inner sense that Francie vows: if her conviction on this sub would never really do anything—that ject could have expressed itself intel is, wouldn't really like anything-they ligibly it would have given you a

didn't like. glimpse of a droll state of mind Her sister's docility was a great dim theory that a bright girl ought to comfort to her, especially as it was be able to try successive aspirants. addressed in the first instance to herI e'ia's conception of what such a trial self. She liked and disliked certain might consist of was strangely inno things much more than the girl herself cent: it was made up of calls and did either; and Francie was glad to walks and buggy-drives, and above take advantage of her reasons, having all of being spoken of as engaged ; so few of her own. They served

It was

Flack;

Delia's reasons-for Mr. Dosson as Waterlow at home, so that they were well, so that Francie was not guilty of free to express themselves, and the any particular irreverence in regarding pictures were shown them by his her sister, rather than her father, as servant. They looked at them as they the controller of her fate. A fate was looked at bonnets and confections rather a cumbersome and formidable when they went to expensive shops : possession, which it relieved her that as if it were a question, among so some kind person should undertake many specimens, of the style and tbe keeping of. Delia had somehow colour they would choose. Mr. Watergot hold of hers first-before even her low's productions struck them for the father, and ever so much before Mr. most part in the same manner as those

and it lay with Delia to make garments which ladies classify as any change.

She couldn't have ac frights, and they went away with a cepted any gentleman as a husband

very low opinion of the young Ameriwithout reference to Delia, any more can master. George Flack told them, than she could have done up her hair however, that they couldn't get out of without a glass. The only action it, inasmuch as he had already written taken by Mr. Dosson in consequence

home to the Reverberator that Francie of his elder daughter's revelations was was to sit. They accepted this someto embrace the idea as a subject of how as a kind of supernatural sign daily pleasantry. He was fond, in his that she would have to; for they beintercourse with his children, of some lieved everything that they heard small usual joke, some humorous re quoted from a newspaper. Moreover frain ; and what could have been more Mr. Flack explained to them that it in the line of true domestic sport than

would be idiotic to miss such an opa little gentle but unintermitted rail portunity to get something at once lery upon Francie's conquest? Mr. precious and cheap; for it was well Flack's attributive intentions became known that Impressionism was going a theme of indulgent parental chaff, to be the art of the future, and Charles and the girl was neither dazzled nor Waterlow was a rising Impressionist. annoyed by such familiar references to It was a new system altogether, and them. Well, he has told us about the latest improvement in art. They half we know," she used often to didn't want to go back, they wanted reply.

to go forward, and he would give them Among the things he told them was an article that would fetch five times that this was the very best time in the money in a couple of years. They the young lady's life to have her were not in search of a bargain, but portrait painted, and the best place in they allowed themselves to be inocuthe world to have it done well : also lated with any reason which they that he knew a “lovely artist,” a thought would be characteristic of young American of extraordinary earnest people; and he even convinced talent, who would be delighted to un them, after a little, that when once dertake the work. He conducted them they had got used to impressionism to this gentleman's studio, where they they would never look at anything saw several pictures by which they else. Mr. Waterlow was the man, were considerably mystified. Francie among the young, and he had no protested that she didn't want to be interest in praising him, because he done that way, and Delia declared that was not a personal friend : his reputashe would as

soon bave her sister tion was advancing with strides, and shown up in a magic lantern. They any one with any sense would want to had had the fortune not to find Mr. secure something before the rush.

HENRY JAMES. (To be continued.)

276

VIRGIL IN ENGLISH VERSE.

THAT Virgil should be the most it unlikely that the attempt to transtranslated and the most untranslat late him into verse would be often able of poets is not wonderful : it is made in the future, and hinting that only another way of saying that more sweet were the uses of prose. His than any other poet he kindles in his judgment that scholars would prefer readers the thirst after expression, prose has been signally falsified : it is the desire of repayment. And yet a small, though possibly a deserred, his supreme magic is, like all supreme compliment to scholars to think that qualities, essentially inimitable: in. they would naturally prefer the inceptus clamor frustratur hiantes : they ferior to the superior form of lanperish, and he remains.

guage. Conington proceeded forth with But it is in human nature that to translate Virgil into verse himself. translations should continue to be And since then there have been more made, since in no other way can the partial or complete verse-translations desire come so near being satisfied of than ever--in blank verse, in heroic saying what we think about Virgil. couplets, in bailad-couplets, in stanzas; For a translation is in a sense the and now by Sir Charles Bowen in a sum of the translator's criticism and metre which, if not precisely of his appreciation of his author : he says in own invention, has never been reduced it, in his own words, what effect the to the same rules and employed on original has produced on him. For the the same scale before. perfect translation two qualities would This inetre Sir Charles Bowen conbe required : perfect apprehension of siders to be a modification of the the thing translated, and perfect power English hexameter. It is (if techniof putting this apprehension into cal language may be allowed for the words; and beyond these two quali- sake of precision) a rhyming line, in ties nothing else. Whether a scholar triple measure, containing six stresses, and poet great enough to appreciate and beginning and ending on a stressed Virgil fully would often have time or syllable. It corresponds, as exactly inclination to translate him, when so as an English can correspond to a many other matters call on him for Latin metre, to the dactylic pentautterance, were too curious a question. meter if the first half of the line By doing so he would to a certain were full: as if, for example, we were degree abandon the function of a poet to alter the couplet of Ovid into, for that of a critic, and poets cannot well be spared for other work. The

“Et tamen ille tuæ felix Æneidos auctor chances are that a modern poet would

Contulit in Tyrios simul arma viruinquc

toros." only care to translate Virgil in the way in which Virgil himself trans It is obvious that a pentameter thus lated Theocritus or Homer : though altered would still remain essentially Mr. Morris's Æneid (which is not only different from a hexameter in rhytha remarkable poem, but one of the mical effect; and if Sir Charles most important criticisms ever made Bowen's verse be spoken of as on Virgil) is such an exception as hexameter, this must be carefully disproves the rule. Conington, in 1861, kept in mind.

kept in mind. As an English form concluded his review of the English of verse it is the same, with one extranslators of Virgil by pronouncing ception (that the line is begun on a

stressed syllable), as that of the earlier sections of Maud.

But this exception is of capital importance. To understand it, we must consider what may be called the natural quality of English rhythm.

In early English poetry we find the systems of falling and rising rhythm --that is to say, of rhythms in which the stressed syllables precede the unstressed, and rhythms in which the unstressed syllables precede the stressed - both in use and fighting for predominance. The first was combined with an initial, the second with a final assonance. But with Langland the former system said its last word. Whether from the effect of the personal genius of Chaucer, from the overpowering authority of French and Italian poetry, or from some inherent quality of the English language, the rising rhythm alone has been since then used for continuous poetical composition : with few exceptions, and these chiefly lyrical, iambic and anapæstic verse have driven out trochaic and dactylic. Partly this is due to the prevalence of rhymed verse : trochaic or dactylic metres imply double or triple rhymes, and to these the English language does not lend itself ; while the use of rhyme at all, means that the line rises towards the end and culminates on the last stressed syllable. But even if rhyme be put out of account, the normal, and by this time we may say the necessary, form of blank verse is iainbic. Mr. Browning's One Word More is a singular instance of the falling trochaic rhythm being chosen, for special reasons, and with the explicit purpose of making a poem different from all other poems; while of dactylic verse (“dactylics, call'st thou 'em ?”) except for the attempts made to write English hexameters after the Latin model, there is hardly a specimen in our poetry.

Again, there are two forms of sixstressed triple metre natural to English, differing from each other in that one divides the line midway and the

other does not. Cesura properly speaking does not exist in English, and cannot exist in any poetry which is not quantitative. But the effect of a cæsura may be obtained by beginning the rhythm anew from a fresh unaccented base in the middle of the line; and this is the only method in English of giving that double movement of fall and rise which is given by the cæsura to the Greek and Latin hexameters. The undivided line has no quality in common with the classical hexameter except that of having six stresses; and its movement is so extremely rapid that it can hardly be used except for lyrical poetry. To make the difference more clear, a passage in each metre is added ; the one from Maud, the other from Mr. Morris's translation of the Volo-spá, the creation of Ask and Embla. “A million emeralds break from the ruby:

budded lime In the little grove where I sit-ah, where

fore cannot I be Like things of the season gay, like the

bountiful season bland, When the far-off sail is blown by the breeze

of a softer clime, Half-lost in the liquid azure bloom of a

crescent of sea, The silent sapphire-spangled marriage ring

of the land ?” “ There were twain, and they went upon

earth, and were speechless, unmighty They were hopeless, deathless, lifeless, and

the Mighty named them Man : Then they gave them speech and power, and

they gave them colour and breath ; And deeds and the hope they gave them,

and they gave them Life and Death : Yea hope, as the hope of the Framers ; yea

might, as the Fashioners had, Till they wrought, and rejoiced in their

bodies, and saw their sons and were glad :

and wan;

i The word cæsura is here used in its strict sense of a break at the end of a half-foot, or, to speak metrically, a division in the line from which the rhythm starts again with reversed stress : thus in a senarius the rhythm goes on from the cæsural pause as trochaic, and in a hexameter as anapæstic. In a line of English blank verse there may be a break, but there is no change of rhythm.

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