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acted sovereignly and arbitrarily in these matters, bestowing these supernatural favors upon whom he pleases, as being obliged to none. Thus he has done as to the external revelation : Psalm cxlvii. 19, 20..... He sheweth his word unto Jacob....his statutes and his judgments unto Israel: He hath not dealt so with any nation, and as for his judgments, they have not known them. And thus he has done as to the internal influences of his spirit : Mat. xi. 25, 26....I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes ; even so, Father, for so it seemed good in thy sight : And thus God, even to this day, as to both outward and inward helps, hath mercy on whom he will have mercy, and compassion on whom he will have compassion : He effectually sends the gospel to one nation, and not ta another; and where the gospel is preached, he, by his spirit, awakens, convinces, humbles, converts whom he pleases, and leaves the rest.
And thus the objection, from the heathen's not having suficient outward advantages, has been answered ; and, from the answer, I have taken occasion to make these (I hope) not unprofitable remarks ; and may now return and repeat my former assertion, with still higher degrees of assurance, viz. that mankind are altogether to blame for, and entirely inexcusable in, their non-conformity to the holy law of God, and therefore justly deserve damnation—and that even the heathen, as well as others.
Thus have I endeavored to.shew what is the exact measure of love and obedience that God requires of the children of men, and that all mankind have sufficient natural powers and outward advantages, and that all their blindness, ignorance, and wickedness, are voluntary, chosen, and loved : And I have been the larger upon these things, in order to clear up the justice of God and his law, and the grace of God in his gospel_50th which have been sadly misrepresented by those who have not arighe understood or well attended to these things. They have said that it is not just in God to require sinless perfection of man*kiad, or damn any for the want of it : They have said that the
law is abated and brought down to a level with (I hardly know what, unless I call it) the vitiated, depraved temper of an apostate world, who both hate God and his holy law, and want an act of toleration and indulgence to be passed in favor of their corruptions, that, at heart, they may remain dead in sin, and yet, by a round of external duties, be secured from damnation at last : And so they have, like the Pharisees of old, (Mat. v.) destroyed the law by their abatements ; and now the law, only by which is the knowledge of sin, being thus laid aside, they are ignorant of their sinful, guilty, helpless, undone state, and so are insensible of their needof the sovereign grace of God, through Jesus Christ, to save them—and fancy they are well disposed enough to turn to God of their own accord : And having imbibed such notions of religion, they easily see that the better sort of heathen have, for substance, the same religion with themselves, and therefore have equal charity for them ;-not being really sensible of their need of gospel-grace for themselves, they have full charity for the heathen, who never so much as heard of it: But what I have said is sufficient, I think, to clear the justice of God in his law, and the grace of God in the gospel, and sweep away this refuge of lies, by which so many gladly quiet their con. sciences, and wofully deceive their own souls. However, of these things we shall still have something more afterwards.
Thus, we have gone through what was proposed....have considered what was implied in love to God, and from what motives we are to love him, and what measure of love is required: and all that has been said cannot possibly be summed up in fewer or plainer words than these, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul....with all thy mind, and with all thy strength : This is the first and great commandment ; in conforinity whereunto the first and great part of religion does consist: And the second, which is like unto it, being the foundation of the other half of this part of) religion, (now under consideration), is, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thuself ; which is what we are, in the next place, to proceed to a consideration of
OF LOVE TO OUR NEIGHBOR.
II. Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself: In which words we have (1.) the duty required—Thou shalt love. (2.) The original, natural groundand reason of it intimated— Thy neighbor; which name, given to our fellow-men, may lead us to consider them as being what they are in themselves, and as sustaining some kind of character and relation with regard to us.(3.) The rule and standard by which our love to our neighbor is to be regulated-As thyself. Here, therefore, we may consider what is implied in love to our neighor.... from what motives we are to love him, and by what standard our love is to be regulated, as to its nature and measure.
FIRST, Let us consider what is implied in that love to our neighbor, which, by the law of God, is required of us : And, in general, it is pre-supposed, or implied, that we have a right temper of mind....an upright, impartial, candid, benevolent temper, even to perfection, without the least tincture of any thing to the contrary; for, without this, we shall not-we cannot view our neighbors in a true light, nor think of them....nor judge of them ....nor feel towards them, exactly as we ought. A wrong temper....a selfish, partial, uncandid, censorious, carping, bitter, stingy, proud temper, will unavoidably give a wrong turn to all our thoughts of, and feeling towards, our neighbors ;-as is manifest from the nature of the thing, and from universal experience. Solomon observes, that as a man thinketh, so is he ; and it is as true, that as a man is, so lie thinketh; for out of the heart the temper and disposition of the man, proceed his thoughts of, and feelings towards, both persons and things, according to our Savior....Mat. xii. 33, 34, 35. An upright, therefore impartial, candid, benevolent temper, to perfection, without the least tincture of any thing to the contrary, is pre-supposed and implied, in the love required, as being, in the nature of things, absolutely necessary thereto. We must have a right temper, and, under the iníluence thereof, be perfectiy in a disposition to view our
neighbors in a right light, and think and judge of them, and be affected towards them as we ought ; i. e. To love them as ourselves. Particularly,
1. There is a certain esteem and value for our fellow-men, which, upon sundry accounts, is their due, that is implied in this love. There are valuable things in mankind : some have one thing, and some another—some have gifts, and some have grace—some have five talents, and some two, and some one some are worthy of a greater esteem, and some less, considered merely as they are in themselves : and then some are, by God, set in a higher station, and some in a lower, sustaining various characters, and standing in various relations ; as magistrates and subjects, ministers and people, parents and children, masters and servants, &c. And there is a certain esteem and respect due to every one in his station. Now, with a disinterested impartiality, and with a perfect candor, and a hearty good-will, ought we to view the various excellencies' of our neighbors, and consider their various stations, characters, and relations ; and, in our hearts, we ought to give every one his due honor, and his proper place, being perfectly content,.for our parts, to be and to act in our own sphere, where God has placed us; and, by our fellow-mortals, to be considered as being just what we are : and indeed, this, for substance, is the duty of every one in the whole system of intelligent creatures. As for God most high, the throne is his proper place, and all his intelligent creatures have their proper places, both with respect to God, and with respect to one another-which places they are bound to take, and to acquiesce in with all their hearts. We have an instance of this temper, to a good degree, in David : He was sensible that Saul was the Lord's anointed, and that it became him to render honor to whom honor is due, and fear to whom fear, and his heart was tender : hence David's heart smote him, because he had cut off Saul's skirt....I. Sam. xxiv. 5. This temper will naturally dispose us to feel and conduct righttowards our superiors, inferiors, and equals; and so lay a solid foundation for the performance of all relative duties. The contrary to allthis
ís a proud and conceited temper, attended with a disposition to despise superiors, scorn equals, and trample upon inferiors ; a temper in which men over-value themselves, their friends and party and under-value and despise allothers. Such do not consider persons and things as being what they are, and think,and judge, and be affected, and act accordingly: Nor do they consider, or regard the different stations in which men are set by God, or the characters they sustain by divine appointment. They are not governed by the reason of things, and the sense of what is right and fit; but by their own corruptions. This was the case with Korah and his company, when they rose up against Moses and Aaron, and said, Ye take too much upon you, seeing all the congregation are holy, every one of them, and the Lord is among them.... Num, xvi. 3. Pride makes superiors scornful in their temper, and tyrannical in their government ; and pride makes inferiors envious in their temper, and ungovernable in their lives ; and it makes equals jealous, unfriendly, contentious: In a word, it lays a foundation for the neglect of all rel. ative duties, and for a general discord and confusion among mankind.
2. We ought not only to consider, esteem, and respect our fellow-men, as being what they are, and, with a perfect impartiality, give them their due, in our very hearts, according to what they are, and to the stations they stand in, being perfectly content, for our own parts, with the place which God has allotted to us in the system, and to be and act in our own proper sphere, and willing to be considered by others as being just what we are ; but it is farther implied in the love required, that we be perfectly benevolent towards them ; i. e. that we consider their happiness, as to body and soul-as to time and eternity, as being what it really is, and are (according to the measure of our natural capacities) thoroughly sensible of its value and worth, and are disposed to be affected, and act accordingly, i. e. to be tender of it....value and promote it, as being what it is to long, and labor, and pray for it—and to rejoice in their prosperity, and be grieved for their adversity ; and all