ham, the whole of his argumentation it is commercially and politically wrong: appeared to us to be summed up in this : it is therefore inexpedient, and I must It is inexpedient to adopt Lord Ashley's oppose it." proposition, because it goes to destroy We shall now lay aside the particular two hours daily of the labour of those to question in debate, leaving it to be whom it refers, and, consequently, to settled by those who have the best deprive the nation of labour to that opportunity of acquainting themselves amount, as well as numerous families of with the facts of the case, whether the the wages which that prevented labour evidence does indeed establish such might have procured. Now, had Sir an amount of evil, as that the proposed James opposed the principle altogether, remedy is absolutely called for by Chris. we should have said that in this case the tian justice and humanity. On this we choice lay between physical and moral pronounce no opinion whatever ; but we mischiefs, on the one hand, and com. do contend that, supposing the necessity mercial disadvantages on the other ; but of the remedy to be made out, the objec. we can see no force in the objection as tion derived from the possible occurrence urged by Sir James, who is willing, not of some temporary, or even perman only to apply the principle of protection commercial inconvenience, ought not to in other cases, but to apply it in this be allowed to prevail. To us, the grand particular form of limitation. He is

question to be decided appears to be willing to restrict the hours of actual this: which of these two grounds should labour to twelve, but not to ten. Now, be taken by a British Legislator,-that his argument as to the annihilation of of a visible expediency, ascertained solely the two hours, between ten and twelve, by reference to immediate and secular has equal force against the annihilation results; or of submission to the moral of four hours, between ten and fourteen; requirements of humanity and justice, or, indeed, against the annihilation of even though the practice required by that labour by any extent of restriction what- submission should issue in some present ever. Sir James's objection is equally valid inconvenience ? In other words: are against his own proposition, and Lord Legislators, silting as Legislators, to conAshley's. Standing on the ground which fine themselves in their deliberations to he had chosen, he admitted that an evil what is visible in the constitution of existed, to which it was necessary to human society; or are they, as Legislaapply a remedy; and as between himself tors, to recognise the fact, that there is and the noble Lord, the real point to be an authority superior to their own; and settled was, whether of the two had fixed that as that authority implies the doon the right quantity: whereas, his minion of a living, personal ruler, so has objection, as urged by himself, was con- it expressed itself in actually promulclusive against the provision of any gated laws, according to which, with a remedy at all. Without denying the rule which is almighty, which extends evil, his argument went to establish the to all, and is ceaselessly exercised, in fact, that other evils would be occasioned reference to certain 'plainly declared purby the remedy; and between the two,-on poses, the affairs of mankind are gothe one side, moral and physical evils, verned? The whole science of legislawith a proposed remedy, supported on tion, in its higher branches, binges on grounds of Christian-humanity and jus- this question. And we do not see how tice; and on the other side, commercial any believer in an actually given, and evils occasioned by the remedy, as proved sufficiently-promulgated revelation, can to be such by the maxims of political doubt as to the reply which it ought to economy,—he made his choice: in effect


Either legislation must be he said, “I should he glad to apply the confined to regulations merely secular,– remedy; but, though it may be morally which it never has been, nor do we see right, yet, as tending to pecuniary loss, how it can be ; or if it refers at any time


to subjects directly moral, it is as much he says, “expedient in the long-run.” the duty of the Legislators, as constitut- Yes; but few are able, and still fewer ing the executive of the entire body willing, to trace onwards, a whole series politic, to acknowledge the expressed of consequences to their final issue, esand exercised authority of the Supreme, pecially when several of the earlier steps personally existing, and personally ruling of the process present nothing but inconSovereign, by conforming their regula- venience. The true rule, therefore, is tions to his declared will, as when they as we have stated it. What is right is lay down rules for the government of expedient, both because it is right, and their own conduct as individuals, or for sooner or later it will be beneficial. Intheir household economy as heads of dividuals have often to submit to infamilies.

convenience in preserving rectitude. And in taking this ground, Christian What would be the consequence of introStatesmen and Legislators are to look at ducing into private life expediency as the divine Sovereignty, not only as the rule of moral conduct ? And just speaking in law, but as exercised in as the individual in private life must do what is usually called “providence ; ” right, and leave the issue to God, so and to that providence the issues of obe- must the Statesman in public life. If dience are to be left. Statesmen would the protection for which Lord Ashley do well to study those chapters of But- contended is right, let it be granted ; ler's Analogy, in which he shows that and, in granting it, let the Legislature what he calls “the course of nature" do homage to that “never-failing Proviimplies moral government; and, accord- dence which ordereth all things in heaing to this, as well as according to that ven and earth." If it be wrong, let it which Revelation describes, right doing be shown to be so, and let not an argumay in some cases expose to some pre- ment of justice and humanity on sent inconvenience or loss. Right is side, be met merely by an argument of nevertheless to be done ; and confidence pounds, shillings, and pence on the reposed in the Governor that, eventually, other. On a similar method of reasonthe consequences shall be as advantag- ing, the legal maintenance of the Sabeous as, at first, they may seem to be bath must be at once abandoned ; for, unfavourable. It were

a refreshing whatever the ultimate consequences may sight, in this age of secular utilitarian- be, the first and most obvious effect is, ism, to behold a Statesman occupying the annihilation of the seventh part of a this noble position ; and, having ascer- man's labour. Let all such questions tained what was right by the application be thoroughly examined; but, in exof a far higher rule than that of a present amining them, let it be with the Chrisand visible expediency, resolving to do tian doctrine of God's providence in our it, reposing an unhesitating trust in the Senates, as it is with public Acts of Pargovernment of Providence, and calmly liament in our law courts. The Judges awaiting the issue : satisfied that even on the bench recognise these Acts as of though the immediate consequences undoubted authority, and found their might seem to indicate the inexpediency decisions upon them. So let our Sena. of the measure, sooner or later it should

tors act in regard to the doctrine of Probe undeniably manifest, that what is vidence. Let it be considered as right is also expedient ; that, in fact, constitutional public doctrine, according right is the true measure of expediency, to which they are both to argue and act. not expediency the rule of right. Paley, Were this the case, we should hear a who is so often quoted in favour of the great deal less of expediency; and we doctrine of expediency, is careful to are deeply persuaded that we should not guard his statements by an expression have so many inexpedient measures. which, were it properly considered, What is called the doctrine of expewould be seen to render the doctrine it. diency is not only erroneous, but misself practically useless. “ It must be," chievous; and the history of the opera


tion of the Acts founded upon it would be, we believe, a history of their mischiefs, furnishing melancholy, but undoubted, proof, that when men choose to

forget God, their very sin supplies the scourge by which they are punished.

April 22d, 1844.



IMITATED FROM HORACE, BOOK I., ODE XXII. Place me on Zembla's plains,

If Heathen may be found, (Where fierce Boreas reigns,)

To hear the Gospel sound, Midst chilling ice and snow ;

On Jesus to believe ; Where scarce a solar ray

Their idols cast away, Beams on the short-lived day,

And for salvation pray, Where waters never flow :

A change of heart receive; Or on Arabia's soil,

My Saviour and his smile, (Which mocks at human toil,)

The moments would beguile, Where awful tempests roll ;

Would give the desert charms ; Where verdure never grows,

The clime though wing'd with death, Nor fountain ever flows,

'Twere heaven to yield my breach, To cheer the fainting soul :

And fly to Jesus' arms.
Banks of the Aln, 1843.



JOHN xvii. 11.

O what should be ever the wish and the prayer,

By piety breathed in her closet alone,
When sighing to think what divisions are there,

Where Christ pray'd that all should be lovingly one !
That the heavenly pages, the word of the Lord,

May still be more honour'd and humbly perused ;
And the heavenly light that illumines the word

May still be more brightly and widely diffused !
As children alike of one Father above,

The voice of one Father must teach us, and guide,
Or, surely, whatever our lips may approve,

Dividing our homage, our hearts will divide.
As sinners who trust in our Saviour that shed

His blood to redeem us, our pleasure should be,
To love and obey him ; and hath he not said,

“Go, search ye the Scriptures : they witness of me?"
As temples alike of one Spirit that dwells

In all who draw near to their God through the Son,
O should we not listen to Him when He tells,

Our Master, our Saviour, our Teacher, are one ?

* From “ Songs from the Parsonage."

MISSIONARY NOTICES, Relating principally to the Foreign MISSIONS carried on under the


MISSIONS IN THE FEEJEE ISLANDS. The following recent intelligence from Feejee forms a gratifying sequel to the Journal of Mr. Waterhouse, published in our Numbers for February and March. The progress of Christian instruction among the Feejeeans, and the possible extension of the Mission throughout 80 large a population, are circumstances of great encouragement. FEEJEE ISLANDS.-Extract of a Letter from the Rev. John Hunt, dated Viwa,

June 6th, 1843. The time is now drawing near when people. It often happens that our pa. we may expect the return of the “Tri- tients have sacrificed to their own gods; ton:" I therefore commence writing to and when they find that this is of no use, you.

they come to us, and then they soon reAs it would be a tedious task for you to cover. They are then convinced, in spite read even an abstract of my entire journal, of themselves, that the gods are false; or I shall extract a few particulars from it, that, if they are true, they have no love arranged under different heads, which will for their worshippers. give you some idea of the nature of my I may add, that, although I do not employments during the year.

make any charge for medicine, the people The Lord has been very gracious to us pay me well from motives of gratitude. in respect of health. It is true, I have

NATIVE TEACHERS. been poorly many times, and am not very well now ; but Mrs. Hunt's health I have had three regular attendants on has been better at Viwa than at any my morning instructions this year,--two other place. For this we desire to be young men who were placed under my very thankful to God.

care last year, and our regular Teacher at A good portion of my time has been Viwa. My own servant has also regula occupied by the dispensing of medicine. larly attended, and sometimes another or

Soon after the last District-Meeting, two, who, I have some hopes, will beMr. Jagger was taken very ill. I had come useful to their fellow-men. to make many visits to Rewa to attend We have met at six o'clock in the on him; and, by the blessing of God, morning, being a convenient hour. At he was completely restored. Among my first I delivered a lecture four mornings patients I have had persons of both sexes, in the week. This I found did but little and of all ranks and ages, sometimes good, as none of my party were able to from twenty to thirty in number; and I take notes of what they heard ; and as have had to dispense medicine for almost they were not familiar with many things every disease to which the Feejeeans are I had to say, they soon forgot them. subject. Thank God, I have been very I therefore determined to write a number successful; so that all the people now of lectures, that we might read them believe in the efficacy of English medi- together, and converse about them. I cine, and come to me with the greatest therefore set about writing. This, howconfidence. My practice is not confined ever, did not appear to me to meet the to Viwa. I have bad under my care the so I engaged an English lad old King of Bau, one of his sons, three to help me to write a few copies of or four of his grandchildren, and several them. They are now completed ; and of the Bau Chiefs and people, as well as we have read several of them together, persons from the other towns near to some of them many times over.

I can Viwa. Administering medicine is very speak well of the attention of those important, as it is a direct way of attack- under my care, and of their conduct in ing the gods of Feejee, and getting hold general. It is not to be expected that they of the understandings and feelings of the can study like Englishmen; but they VOL. XXIII. Third Series. May, 1844.

2 H

case ;

will go away with a much better know. mitted, and went to his appointment. ledge of theology than those who have Several of the youths accompanied him not been so instructed, and take with to hear his first sermon, and he had a them a book of lectures of two hundred good congregation of the inhabitants of and fifiy folio pages, and also an abstract

the place. of them in a small book. The lectures When he came home in the evening I are by no means what I should wish them asked him how he succeeded ; and he to be; but I have done my best, and have gave us the following account:had to work hard to make them what “I have been told by the Tonga they are. I have endeavoured to form Teachers that the young Preachers are the character of those committed to my generally much afraid on making their charge, as well as give them instruction; first attempt at preaching, and that they and though this is the most difficult, as generally fall down flat on the ground. well as the most important, part of my I fully expected this would be the case work, I am thankful that I have had some with me; and this was the reason of my success. The young men exhibit in some requesting to preach in the large chapel, measure a serious and devout behaviour, because I thought I could take hold of diligence and regularity in their studies both sides of the pulpit, and, by holding and other employments, and submission very fast, save myself a fall. I went, and respect to those who are over them in however, because you told me, and stood the Lord ; and, what is the best, because up and gave out my hymn; and the lads the foundation of all, they have been sang so well, that a woman began to cry; growing in grace, and in the knowledge and, while I was praying, she cried out and love of our Lord Jesus Christ. Mrs. aloud. I read my lesson, and found my Hunt has taught them English. I do month very strong to explain it. We not think they will ever know it per- sang again, and I gave out my text, and fectly; yet they can now read two or felt very strong in my body, and great three chapters in the New Testament, freedom in speaking to the people.". and translate most of them. One of the The only thing that surprised Noah Teachers says he understands the Scrip- was, that he did not fall down all his tures in Feejeean much better for his length before the congregation. He was knowledge of English ; so that it is not much encouraged by his success, and labour in vain.

has proceeded very comfortably ever I have not been able to do much in since. geography, for want of a globe and suit

PUBLIC SERVICES, able maps. These, however, are now

Our congregations are good for such a provided for me by the kindness of Mr.

small place as Viwa. We average from Williams, who has nearly finished both."

one hundred to one hundred and forty on I should feel perfect confidence in plac

the Sabbath. The Lord has been plea:ed ing in Circuits at once two of those who have been under my care. May God

to favour us with his presence in our as.

seinblies ; so that we have almost invamake them workmen that need not be ashamed !

riably been constrained to say, “ Master, The account which Noah gave of his

it is good to be here.” We are looking first attempts at preaching will not soon

for more directly-saving power to attend be forgotten by us.

the preached word ; and we know God I told him he must go to Naivuruvuru,

will hear our prayers, because he “ will

have all men to be saved, and to come a small place about three miles from Viwa, where we have four or five lotu

unto the knowledge of the truth."

The class-meetings and public prayer. people, (as the Christian converts are called,) and make his first attempt at

meetings are well attended. I have s preaching to them. To this, however,

weekly meeting for examining the youths

as to what they have heard on the SabNoah had a great objection ; but I could

bath, &c.; and have several times met no' persuade him to tell me what it was.

the little children and the adults for He said he wished much to preach in the

the same purpose.

These are valuable large chapel at Viwa, especially for the first time. I told him I could not allow

meetings. him to do so; and assured him he must

OUT-STATIONS. take the appointment I had given him. This Circuit is now rather extensive, When he saw I was determined, he sub- and it takes a considerable portion of

time to visit all the places in it. An excellent set of globes and maps will Naivuruvuru is only about three miles have been received, since this letter was written, from Viwa, and is attended to by the from London.-EDIT.

young men who are under my instruc

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