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might, and by repeated applications, Inquisition, on suspicion of heresy, to have him committed to the His Highness begged the Chief Inflames, as a noted leader of here. quisitor to set him at liberty. This tics. This was refused by the Doge request was refused by the haughty and Senate of Venice ; who, when
who replied, that he acknow. he was at length condemned, freed ledged the Duke as bis Lord; but him from the punishment of the fire that the Pope, for whom he acted in by an express decree. It was the this cause, possessed a power supewill of God that he should bear his rior to that of any temporal Prince. testimony to the truth for so long a Some days after, the Duke sent a time; and that, like one affixed to a second message, pressing his former cross, he should, as from an emin request. The Inquisitor repeated nence, proclaim to all the world the his refusal ; and, showing the keys restoration of Christianity, and the of the prison, told the messengers, revelation of Antichrist. At last, that if they chose to release the prithis pious and excellent man, whoin soner by force, they would do it as neither threatenings nor promises their peril. could move, sealed his doctrine by At Faenza, a nobleman revered an undaunted martyrdom; and ex for his high birth and distinguished changed the filth and protracted virtues fell under the suspicion of tortures of a prison, for a watery the Inquisitors, as being a Lutheran, grave.”
After being long detained in a foul There is good reason to think that prison, he was put to the torture : many others, whose naines have not not being able to extort from him come down to us, suffered the same what they wished, the Inquisitors death at Venice; besides those who ordered the operation to be repeated; perished by diseases contracted dur- and their victim expired in their ing a tedious and unwholesome im- hands. The report of this barbaprisonment. Among the latter was rous deed spreading through the Jeronimo Galateo, who evinced his city, created a tumult, in which the constancy in the faith by enduring house of the Inquisition was ata rigorous confinement of ten years. tacked, its altars and images torn
Everywhere throughout Italy, down, and some of the Priests trod. during this period, those suspected den to death by the incensed multiof favouring the new opinions were tude. sought out with as much keenness, In the territory of Milan, the and treated with as much cruelty, most cruel methods were used to as in the Venetian territories. As extirpate heresy. Galeazzo Trezio, the archives of the Inquisition are a nobleman, while attending the locked up, we are left, in general, to University of Pavia, had imbibed judge of its proceedings from colla. the Reformed doctrines from Mayteral circumstances and incidental nardi, an Augustinian Preacher; notices. From the number of those and was confirmed in them by Celio who escaped, we may form some Secundo Curio. Having fallen into idea of the far greater numbers who the hands of the Inquisition, in must have been caught in the fangs 1551, and having retracted some of that vigilant and insatiable tri concessions which he had been inbunal. There was not a city of any duced to make at his first apprehen, note in Italy, from which there were sion, he was sentenced to be burned not refugees in some part of Pro. alive,-a punishment which he bore testant Europe. The execution done with the greatest fortitude. by the Inquisition at Cremona may In 1558 two persons were com. be inferred from the strong terms of mitted alive to the flames. One of approbation in which it is noticed them, a Monk, being forced by an by the Popish historians. A single attending Priest into a pulpit erectfact is sufficient to prove the unre- ed beside the stake, for the purpose lenting severity practised in the of making his recantation, confessed duchy of Mantua. A person allied the truth with great boldness, and to the Duke being seized by the was driven into the fire with blows
and curses. During the following the sixteenth century! Such were year, scarcely a week elapsed with- the measures by which, unhappily out some individual being brought for the cause of truth and liberty, it out to suffer for heresy; and, in eventually succeeded in crushing 1563, eleven citizens of rank were the Reformation throughout Italy ! thrown into prison. The execution And, adınitting the accuracy of of a young Priest, in 1569, was ac one of their avowed tenets, that the companied with circumstances of Church of Rome is semper eadem, peculiar barbarity. He was con
such we demned to be hanged, and to be must believe it to be in the present dragged to the gibbet at a horse's day. It maintains the same princitail. In consequence of entreaty, ples; it breathes the same spirit; the last part of the sentence was and, were it permitted to proceed dispensed with ; but, after being without check or restraint, it would half strangled, he was cut down ; even now adopt plans equally prompt and, refusing to recant, he was lite- and decisive, for extinguishing, in rally roasted to death, and his body all countries, every thing that it is tbrown to the dogs.*
pleased to call “ heresy;" and for Such was the Church of Rome in subjugating the whole Christian
world to the degrading and ruinous * See M‘Crie's “History of the Progress and yoke of the Papacy. Suppression of the Reformation in Italy.”
W. P. B.
BISHOP M'ILVAINE, AND THE TRACTARIANS. If I were asked, What is the course and bearing, will lie out place to begin at for the purpose of before you. attacking the Tractarian system, as As to the substance of the faith, a thing of external evidence? I you know, brethren, what the docshould answer, The rule of faith. irine of this system is concerning Settle the point, that the Bible alone the righteousness whereby a sinner is to be the final arbiter of the con. must be justified before God. We troversy, and the work is done. say as our Church says, and as the But if I were asked, What is the Bible says, The righteousness of point whence to survey the Tracta- Christ's obedience unto death as our rian system, and try it to the heart surety, whereby he fulfilled the law as a doctrinal theory, professing to and paid our ransom; a righteousbe the Gospel of Christ, so as best ness external to us, and becoming to get all its bearings into one ours only by being accounted of view? I should answer, The great God unto us, when we put forth the Scripture-doctrine of justification by hand of a living faith to Chri-t. faith only, through the imputed or This the system under consideraaccounted righteousness of Christ. tion rejects with utter disdain and Take your stand at that central emi. execration, and sets up in its place Dence. All the lines of Gospel a righteousness in man, implanted truth meet therein. Let your eye by the Spirit in baptism, and intrace them out. The whole map of creased by good works. It disthis false pretence of truth, in the tinctly asserts, that “the righteous. manifest opposition of its every
ness in which we must stand at the
last day is not Christ's own imputed + “The chief Danger of the Church in these obedience, but of our good works." Times : a Charge delivered to the Clergy of the Righteousness imparted and inheDiocess of Ohio, at the twenty-sixth annual
rent in us, instead of righteousness Convention of the same, in Rosse Chapel, Gambior, September 8th, 1843. By Charles Pettit
accounted unto us and inherent only M'llvaine, D.D., Bishop of the Diocess." Pp. in Christ, is their whole basis of a
I know it was once positively offence.” The self-righteousness of denied, in the earlier writings of the the Jew stumbled over it. The school, that they held to the doc wisdom of the Greek despised it. trine of inherent righteousness. The whole Babel-tower of Romish Then it sounded too much like invention has fallen upon it, to Rome. They have lost the fear of crush it. Let us beware! It is such a sound. Romish sympathies “the foundation of God," and are rather to be boasted, at present, “standeth sure," sealed with the than denied. The identity of their King's signet, precious to them that doctrine with that of Trent, in this believe. “Whoever falleth on that particular, is now no
stone shall be broken.” “Wood, cealed. The only veil they were hay, and stubble" cannot fight with ever able to use, while as yet reserve
a' rock. No system of faith can was convenient, was an old scho. escape entire destruction and shame, lastic invention which the Decrees sooner or later, that is not built on of Trent allowed to remain un that corner-stone. adopted and uncondemned, - the Hence, brethren, you may esti. alleged difference between a righ- mate the character of this system in teousness within, but not in, us; regard to that other great division indwelling, but not inwrought; in of the substance of the faith, - sancdwelling as an inhabitant, but not tification. What can you expect of inherent as a quality, of the man. holy fruits, when the only tree on The invention was too subtle to which the Scriptures bid us look for serve any purpose.
them is cut up by the roots ? All Take it, then, brethren, as a mat the holiness of the Christian life is ter confessed, that the whole foun- ascribed, in the word of God, to the dation on which this system directs operation of justifying faith. But the sinner to trust for justification the whole existence, as well as cpebefore God is a righteousness within ration, of such faith is destroyed, him, his own, as his soul is his own; when you have not only removed implanted by the Holy Spirit, and the foundation of its trust, but subthat only in baptism, but brightened stituted another of precisely an op, in the eucharist; good works also posite character. In the Gospel increasing it, venial sin diminishing plan, justifying faith is a trusting of it, inortal sin etfacing it.
the heart in Christ. In this, it is Need I say a word to make you only " the belief and acceptance of sensible of the awful perversion of certain principles.” Io the Gospel, the Gospel which is contained in faith brings the sinner directly to this? Sad is the state of any mind, Christ : in this system, faith only when such a doctrine can pass be- brings him to the Church and its fore it as a mere matter of opinion, sacraments. It needs not know any or, at most, as a subordinate subject thing explicitly of Christ. In the of condemnation! Low, indeed, is Gospel, two things are continually the spiritual condition of our Church, united, as those which make for our if controversies from without, as to peace,-Christ's righteousness, and matters of order, can seem to bear faith embracing it, putting it on, comparison, in the sight of her taking refuge therein, and drawing Clergy, with this within, as to our therefrom the Spirit of God, to carry hope, our life, our all. It was pre on the work of God in the heart. cisely for the same doctrine that These are always in the foreground. Hooker charged the Church of In this system they are utterly exRome with "overthrowing the foun- cluded ; and the substitute is a righdations of the faith.” Brethren, it teousness in the sinner, and faith is no light thing to take away from coming to baptism to have it im. the contrite sinner that corner- planted, to the eucharist to have it stone, elect, precious, which God newed, and to almsgiving and vahath laid in Zion for his sure hope rious works and sufferings of man and refuge. That refuge is "a for its increase, the sinner knowing stone of stumbling, and å rock of no better refuge for peace with Gud.
« after a
The great motive by which the former it is held, not declared, Gospel acts, and from which faith “ held in its substance," takes its chief and holiest incitement certain manner of reserve in the to obedience, is the love of God as sacraments." “ He who has em. manifested in the atoning sacrifice braced the atonement,” we are told, of Christ. The atonement is always “with most affection, will speak of in the eye of Gospel faith. But it with most reserve.” “Doubthere, to set the atonement in any less,” they say, we are saved by such prominence is pronounced faith in Christ alone ; but to come “unscriptural, uncatholic, unreal,” to know this in all its power is the to which the principle of this sys- very perfection of the Christian.... tem is declared to be “directly op. But as for that assurance and sensiposed, throughout, in tone and spi. ble confidence with which it is rit, in tendencies and effects, in thought necessary that it should be principles and practices.” We are preached, it would seem as if there taught, that the doctrine of the was scarcely any thing against the atonement should not be brought subtle effect of which we are so into “prominent and explicit men much guarded in holy Scripture as tion." We are to preach it, we this." read, as John the Baptist preached What, brethren, must we do with it,-by preaching repentance, allud our ministry, if this system shall ing to the atonement only, as they make us its captives? Must we so suppose he did, "secretly, obscurely, unlearn all we know of the blessed and probably only to a few chosen atonement of our Lord, that we and favoured disciples, to whom it shall feel that we hardly know what must have been a dark saying.” we mean when we speak of it? I We are to prepare the heart" for trust, indeed, you all know now receiving the faith in its fulness," what it is. May God teach you " by insisting, first of all, if needs more and more! Must we so preach be, on natural piety, the necessity of Christ crucified, that, instead of common honesty ; on repentance, aiming anxiously to make the poor judgment to come; by urging such penitent sinner know, at least, as assistances to poverty of spirit as much about his death, his atonefasting and alms, and the necessity ment, his full and perfect oblation of reverent and habitual prayer.” and satisfaction for the sins of the What less could a Platonic philo whole world as we know, we shall sopher have said ? We are to preach aim at keeping him in utter ignomen into the acceptance of the Gos rance ; wrapping up, as “a great pel, without a word of Gospel in secret,” all that is blessed and comour preaching ; we are to lead men forting in the Gospel ; hiding it to the cross of Christ, without a under veils, instead of declaring it word explicitly about Christ and his from the house-tops; putting the cross. Yes, they say, “ explicit be- light of life under the altar-cloth, lief in the atonement is not to be instead of setting it in the golden expected” in a believer, any more candlestick of the sanctuary; com, than the explicit teaching of it is to ing down from the high and blessed characterize the Preacher. It is station of ambassadors of Christ, “hidden in the sacraments." "We charged with "the word of reconhardly know what we speak of, ciliation” to preach to every creawhen we speak of the atonement.” ture, and making the chief value of “ The true knowledge of it is ex our office consist in the ministering pressed in such words as these : of sacraments, as curtains to keep
The salvation of God is nigh unto out of sight the doctrines of Christ? them that fear him."" The contrast Is it to be our great consolation, drawn between the manner of exhi- when we come to review our minisbiting the atonement in this system, try from a death-bed, that, instead and in that which it opposes, is of being able to call our people to that, by the latter, it is declared witness that we have “not shunned by eloquence of speech ;" by the to declare unto them all the counsel
of God," we may bid them testify By that sign, we are told, the early that we have told them nothing Christians “put devils to flight, and about their Saviour more explicitly drew to themselves the fuller bless. than they could learn by looking at ings of Him who died on the the unrent veils of sacraments; that we have never alluded to the atone. As for the preaching of the word, ment but “ secretly and obscurely” they grant “it may be necessary in to “ a few chosen and favoured dis a weak and languishing state ; but, ciples" among them, and even then to say the least, Scripture has never only so as to leave it but "a dark much recommended it as a mode of saying" in their minds ? Begone, doing good.” “ The great tendency with shame, such impudent grasp to sermons, since the Reformation, ing at priestly domination over the indicates a low and decayed state." minds of men, by means of their “Such passionate appeals to the ignorance, under pretence of Gospel feelings, as they often are, would wisdom and truth!
not be so objectionable in themthat carries all this within it, the selves, if they were given outside system that does not necessarily and the church, and not allowed to ocinstinctively revolt at all this as cupy the place of religious worship.” utterly false and vile, deserves itself Then, for countenance in this low to be utterly reprobated. No milder estimate of preaching, they turn to language becomes it.
We have no heathen moralists, especially Pytha. right to speak more softly of what goras and Socrates ; “the former," inust be so abomirable in the sight they tell us, “ being remarkable for of Him whose last charge was, his mysterious discipline, and the “Go, preach the Gospel to every silence he inspired; the latter, for a creature.”
mode of questioning which may be In the Gospel, the great instru- considered as entirely an instance of ment of sanctification, of awakening the kind of reserve in teaching" and converting the sinner, of lead which is advocated in the Tracts. ing him to Christ, and promoting In short, brethren, the direct prethe whole work of God's grace
sentation to the mind, and conwithin him, is the word of God, — science, and heart, of the simple the word preached by his “ministry truth of God, as revealed in, and of reconciliation.” The Saviour's peculiar to, the Gospel, by means great prayer on earth, for the sancti- either of private reading or public fication of his people, was, “Sanc. preaching of the word ; the direct, tify them through thy truth.” But immediate contact of revealed truth, here, the free circulation and gene concerning the faith of Christ, with ral reading of the Scriptures are dis the sinner's understanding and affeccountenanced. Nothing is said in tions, for his conviction, conversion, favour of the private reading of the sanctification ; is not in the least a word of God as a means of grace. feature of this system. On the con. It is not sacramental : it is private, trary, the knowledge of Gospel doce not priestly. The system, there. trine, concerning Christ in his perfore, has nothing to do with it. son and offices, is represented as But an image or sign of the cross is lying at the end, rather than at the a great means of grace ; for it is, beginning, of a Christian life. The they say, “ a sacrainen al sign,” “a explicit knowledge of such matters holy, efficacious emblem." Its use has no connexion with the setting is “ half-sacramental.” That Bibles up of the kingdom of God in our should be multiplied far and wide, hearts. It is enough to know thein is no matter of zeal with them ; but implicitly; that is, to know the that crosses should be everywhere, Church, and to believe that the this is their zeal. “Let us multi. Church knows and holds whatever ply the holy, efficacious emblem,” is true. A sinner becomes a Christheir enthusiasm exclaims, “far tian under the preaching of and wide : there is no saying how tural piety," " of common honesty, many sins its awful forın may avert!” repentance, judgment to come,