binding and selling only. He spent much On the termination of his apprenticeship of this time in reading the books that in 1812, he was employed as a journeyman passed through his hands. And among by a Mr. Delaroche, a bookbinder. His these he especially delighted in works master was so passionate that Faraday treating of chemistry and electricity. By soon resolved to leave. Besides this he this reading he acquired a strong liking for natural philosophy, and was accordingly anxious to attend, whenever he could, the evening lectures delivered by a Mr. Tatum on that subject, the shilling for each lecture being usually paid by his elder brother, Robert, who had been brought up as a blacksmith. Through this Mr. Tatum, he became acquainted with a clerk in the city called Abbott. And it is to his letters to Mr. Abbott that we are indebted for the very clear light that is thrown on his youthful days. The correspondence with this clerk was commenced a little before the end of Faraday's apprenticeship, and it is very curious to observe the objects he had in view in maintaining it. For in his first letter he sets forth without reservation what those objects were:


was, he says, desirous to escape from trade, which he hated, and to enter the service of science, which he loved. In the last year of his apprenticeship he had attended four of Sir Humphry Davy's lectures at the Royal Institution. He made notes of these lectures, wrote them out fully, and sent his MSS. to Sir Joseph Banks the President of the Royal Society, together with a note expressing his desire to escape from trade, and to be employed in some work connected with science. Naturally enough, no answer' was the reply left with the porter." However, a similar application to Sir Humphry Davy shortly after produced the wished for result, and he was appointed by Sir Humphry to the post of assistant in the laboratory of the Royal Institution, with a salary of twenty-five shillings a week, and with two rooms at “I, dear A., naturally love a letter, and take the top of the house. Humble as this poas much pleasure in reading one (when ad-sition was, no other would have been dressed to myself) and in answering one as in almost anything else: and this good opinion which I entertain has not suffered any injury from the circumstances I have noticed above. I also like it for what I fancy to be good reasons drawn up in my own mind upon the subject, and from those reasons I have concluded that letter-writing improves, first, the handwriting; secondly, theat this moment occurs an instance of my great deficiency in letterwriting. I have the idea I want to express full in my mind, but I have forgot the word that exAfter he had been at the Royal Institupresses it, a word common enough too. I mean the expression, the delivery, the composition or tion a few months, he went abroad as manner of connecting words; thirdly, it im- amanuensis to Sir H. Davy. They spent proves the mind by the reciprocal exchange of a year and a half together in France, Italy, knowledge; fourthly, the ideas - it tends I con- Switzerland, &c. During his travels Faraceive, to make the ideas clear and distinct (ideas day kept a journal, every page of which are generated or formed in the head, and I will shows the keenness of his observation. give you an odd instance as a proof); fifthly, it He was by nature very observant, but this improves the morals. I speak not of the abuse, faculty is, we think, brought out and debut the use of epistolation (if you will allow me veloped in all cases by the study of chemto coin a new word to express myself), and that istry. It is even more for this reason than nse I have no doubt produces other good effects. for the sake of the acquisition of useful Now I do not profess myself perfect in those knowledge that we rejoice to see the study points, and my deficiency in others connected with the subject you well know, as grammar, the ordinary curriculum of education in of chemistry and other sciences added to etc. therefore it follows that I want improving on these points: and what so natural in a dis- schools and colleges. Mathematics teaches ease as to resort to the remedy that will perform us to reason accurately, and classics to exa cure, and more so when the physic is so pleas-press our thoughts correctly, but we also ant; or, to express it in a more logical manner, want to cultivate habits of observation. and consequently more philosophically, M. F. The remark of Sir Humphry Davy is is deficient in certain points that he wants to nearly as applicable to our times as to make up, epistolary writing is one cure for the his. deficiencies; therefore I should practise epistolary writing."

equally suited to develop his powers. Here he was in daily intercourse with the greatest chemist of the age. His work for Davy was an "inexhaustible mine of knowledge and improvement." He had opportunities of observing the method of Davy's investigations, and of learning as it were the art of discovery. Here he witnessed, among others, that series of experiments which resulted in the invention of the safety-lamp.

"We are falling," he says, "into an error,

the very reverse of that of our ancestors. We suggestions for the ordinary management perhaps neglect facts too much, or at least, ex-of education, and a sure example for those cept in chemistry, we are not sufficiently atten- who have the misfortune to be without the tive to the records of facts. We are too fond of advantages of a long school life, but have substituting literature for science, talents for neverthelesss a desire for the privileges of information, and wit or brilliant execution for education. The following quotation from accurate and deep research." one of these youthful lectures shows that Now for the purpose of producing habits he had at an early age mapped out the of observing facts, no pursuit is more suit-course of his journey through life: ed than the study of chemistry and similar studies. Great chemists have almost "It is not he who has soared above his fellow invariably exhibited stroug observant pow-mand most readily the pampering couch or the creatures in power, it is not he who can comers, not only in their scientific investiga- costly luxury; but it is he who has done most tions but in the ordinary matters of every-good to his fellows, he who has directed them in day life. and enlightened them in their ignorance, that the weak moment, aided them in the necessity, leads the ranks of mankind."

In this his first absence from home, Faraday realized the depth of his affection for his relations. His letters are full of expressions of love and regret for those at home. On his way back he wrote to his mother

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At the Institution Faraday plodded on quietly for some time, carrying on his selfeducation side by side with his ordinary duties of chemical assistant. He was after a while entrusted by Davy with some simple work, and in process of time he began to make investigations for himself. The results of these investigations were published in some of the journals of science. In this way he gradually became known to the scientific world. When he was once known, honours were showered upon him from all parts. He was elected member or correspondent of various scientific societies, and in 1823 attained the much-prized title of F. R. S. This latter honour was, however, not unaccompanied with alloy. He had at the end of 1821 written some articles on electro-magnetism for the “ Annals of Philosophy." The experiments he made for this purpose led him to make some discoveries, which he published in a paper on "New Electrical Motions." He had some time before heard Dr. Woollaston and Sir H. Davy conversing on the subject of electro-magnetism, after an experiment they had made at the Royal Institution, and he knew that Dr. Woollaston had been engaged on this subject. Accordingly, before publishing his paper, he called on Dr. Woollaston to obtain leave to make some reference to his ideas and discoveries. The Doctor had left town, and "by an error of judgment the paper was published without any allusion to his opinions and intentions." It was, we think, indeed a great error of judgment. Faraday showed by his wish to see Dr. Woollaston that he himself felt he ought to refer to the Doctor; and such reference

"You may be sure we shall not creep from Deal to London; and I am sure I shall not creep to 18, Weymouth Street; and then- but it is of no use, I have a thousand times endeavoured to fancy a meeting with you and my relations and friends the reality must be a pleasure not to be imagined or described."

On his return to England in 1815, he went back to his old post at the Royal Institution. Not long after he began to deliver lectures on chemistry at the City Philosophical Society. This was a society which met at Mr. Tatum's house every Wednesday evening for mutual instruction. Every other week a lecture was delivered by one of the members, each taking his turn, and on these occasions strangers were admitted. The society had also a "class book," which contained essays by the members, and was passed on from one to another for perusal. Faraday had become a member on going to the Royal Institution, and at once entered with enthusiasm into the spirit of the society. He did not rely merely on his own individual exertions in seeking after knowledge, but felt that the intercommunication of thought was one of the greatest aids to those who were educating themselves. In addition to the ordinary meetings of this society, a few of the members met once a week at his rooms "to read together, and to criticize, correct and improve each other's pronunciation and construction of language. The discipline was," he says, "very sturdy, the remarks very plain and open, and the results most valuable." We like to dwell on the method of his self-education. His re-might have been attained by no other sacsources were apparently so small, and the result so grand, that the consideration of the method cannot but be pregnant with

rifice than the mere delay of the publication for a short time. It was very natural for those who knew of Dr. Woollaston's

ideas and work as to this subject to think that some explanation was necessary, but it was hard on young Faraday to be at once accused of dishonesty; for he soon heard of rumours that he was charged "with concealing the theory and views of Dr. Woollaston, with taking the subject while Dr. Woollaston was at work on it, and with dishonourably taking Dr. Woollaston's thoughts and pursuing them without acknowledgment." Faraday hastened at once to clear himself of the charge. He wrote to Dr. Woollaston the following frank and manly letter:

Woollaston's opinion was, that if "Farday acquited himself of making any incorrect use of the suggestions of others," he had no occasion to trouble himself much about the matter. Unfortunately, experience shows us that a misrepresentation once made is seldom wholly got rid of unless with the clearest evidence. And in this case the charge arose again with redoubled vigour. When Faraday was proposed for the Fellowship of the Royal Society, a formidable opposition to his election was in preparation; he then published a historical statement respecting electro-magnetic rotation, and this and "Sir, I am urged by strong motives re- other earnest and clear explanations of spectfully to request your attention for a few his conduct made it manifest to his oppomoments. The latter end of last month I wrote


a paper on electro-magnetism, which I left in nents that the utmost which could be the hands of the printer of the Quarterly Jour-charged against him was that he had been nal, and went into the country. On returning thoughtlessly hasty in publishing his dishome the beginning of this month, I heard from coveries. This seems at first sight to be two or three quarters that it was considered I one of those unseemly squabbles, which had not behaved honourably in that paper; and sometimes occur among great men. that the wrong I had done was done to you. I it was not so. It is pleasing to find Faraimmediately wished and endeavoured to see you, day saying that the kindness and liberalbut was prevented by the advice of my friends, ity of Dr. Woollaston had been constant and am only now at liberty to pursue the plan I to him throughout the whole affair. Alintended to have taken at first. If I have done though the conduct of Woollaston's friends anyone wrong, it was quite unintentional, and must have been painful to Faraday, yet it the charge of behaving dishonourably is not true. I am bold enough, sir, to beg the favour was, we think, quite natural, although it of a few minutes' conversation with you on this might perhaps have been exhibited less subject, simply for these reasons; that I can acrimoniously. It is only after much paclear myself, that I owe obligations to you, that tient toil, combined with good fortune, I respect you, that I am anxious to escape from that men of the most perceptive and inunfounded impressions against me, and if I have ventive powers make the smallest advance done any wrong that I may apologize for it. I in discovery. Accordingly it is but just do not think, sir, that you would regret allow that the forger of any additional link in ing me this privilege; for, satisfied in my own the great chain of knowledge should remind of the simplicity and purity of my motives ceive the full honour of his addition to the in writing that paper, I feel that I should sat- world's wealth, and those who are anxious isfy you; and you would have the pleasure of that no portion of that honour should be freeing me from an embarrassment I do not de- shared by others are really doing good serve to lie under. Nevertheless, if for any service to the cause of science. reason you do not consider it necessary to permit it, I hope I shall not further have increased any unpleasant feeling towards me in your


"I have very much simplified and diminished in size the rotating apparatus, so as to enclose it in a tube. I should be proud if I may be allowed, as a mark of strong and sincere respect, to present one for your acceptance. I am almost afraid to make this request, not because I know of the slightest reason which renders it improper, but because of the uncertain and indefinite form of the rumours which have come about me. But I trust, sir, that I shall not injure myself with you by adopting the simplest and most direct means of clearing up a misunderstanding that has arisen against me; but that what I do with sincerity you will receive favourably.

"I am, Sir, with great respect,

"Your obedient humble servant."

with this Fellowship. Faraday found that Another painful incident is connected his old friend and benefactor, Sir II. Davy, was opposed to his election. Their long and intimate intercourse must have convinced Davy of Faraday's powers, and the great chemist was most undoubtedly, though probably unconsciously, jealous of his advancement. Nor was it strange that Davy should not see with complacency the success of one who had been a kind of servant of his, but who now seemed likely to rival, if not partially eclipse him.

In 1821 Faraday married Miss Sarah Barnard, one of the daughters of Mr. Barnard of Paternoster Row, "an event," he writes in 1849, "which more than any other contributed to his earthly happiness and healthful state of mind. The union

has continued for twenty-eight years, and has in no wise changed, except in the depth and strength of its character." He was allowed to bring his wife to the Institution, and here they lived together in perfect happiness for many a long year. The tenderness and considerate affection which he invariably exhibited towards Mrs. Faraday is, as we might expect, reflected clearly in his correspondence. His letters to her remind us of those of Colling wood to his dear Sarah." The great Admiral himself might have penned the following:

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"I feel rather tired and stiff myself, and perhaps that makes my letter so too; but my dear girl is, I know, a girl of consideration, and will not insist upon having two or three pages of affection after so much narrative. Indeed I see no use in measuring it out at all. I am yours, my heart and thoughts are yours, and it would be a mere formality to write it down so, and capable of adding nothing to the truth, but that I have as much pleasure in saying it as you have in hearing it said, and that it is not with us at least a measure or token of affection merely, but the spontaneous result of it."

And again

"And now, my dear girl, I must set business aside. I am tired of the dull detail of things, and want to talk of love to you; and surely there can be no circumstances under which I can have more right. The time was a cheerful and delightful one before we were married, but it is doubly so now. I now can speak, not of my own heart only, but of both our hearts. I now speak, not with any doubt of the state of your thoughts, but with the fullest conviction that they answer to my own. All that I can now say warm and animated to you, I know that you would say to me again. The excess of pleasure which I feel in knowing you mine is doubled by the consciousness that you feel equal joy in knowing me yours. Oh, my dear Sarah, poets may strive to describe, and artists to delineate the happiness which is felt by two hearts truly and mutually loving each other, but it is beyond their efforts, and beyond the thoughts and conceptions of anyone who has not felt it. I have felt and do feel it, but neither I nor any other man can describe it, nor is it necessary. We are happy, and our God has blessed us with a thousand causes why we should be so. Adieu for to-night."

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and gratitude on his part to do what he could for the Royal Institution in the attempt to establish it firmly. In 1829 he became a lecturer at the Royal Academy, Woolwich, and in 1833 he was appointed to the newly founded professorship of chemistry at the Royal Institution, with a salary of 100l. a year in addition to his ordinary salary of 100l. as director of the Laboratory. In 1835 a pension was granted to him by the government. The circumstances connected with this are interesting, as showing his innate feeling of proper pride and self-respect. At first he wrote induced by his father-in-law to accept it. to refuse the pension, but was afterwards At an interview Lord Melbourne, then Prime Minister, made use of some inconsiderate expressions, such as "humbug," with reference to pensions. Faraday at once wrote to decline the offer of a pension. Friends of both tried to remove the misunderstanding between them, but Faraday was immovable. On being asked what would induce him to change his mind, he replied, "I should require from his Lordship what I have no right or reason to expect he would grant - a written apology for the words he permitted himself to use to me." "The required apolOgy came, frank and full, creditable," as Dr. Tyndall says, "alike to the Prime Minister and the philosopher." In 1836 he was appointed scientific adviser to the Trinity House. In this capacity he introduced very important improvements into the lighthouses of the coast, and from time to time made most valuable reports on the subject of lights. His letter accepting the appointment is very characteristic:

"I consider your letter to me as a great compliment, and should view the appointment at the Trinity House, which you propose, in the same light; but I may not accept even honours without due consideration. In the first place, my time is of great value to me, and if the appointment you speak of involved anything like periodical routine attendances, I do not think I could accept it. But if it meant that in consultation, in the examination of proposed plans and experiments, in trials, etc., made as my convenience would allow, and with an honest

In 1825 he was advanced from the post sense of duty to be performed, then I think it of chemical assistant to that of Director would consist with my present engagements. of the Laboratory at the Institution, and You have left the title and the sum in pencil. this he retained almost to the last, not- of the appointment; you will believe me to be These I look at mainly as regards the character withstanding many alluring temptations sincere in this, when you remember my indifof other appointments. He was offered in ference to your proposition as a matter of inter1827 the Professorship in the new univer- est, though not as a matter of kindness. In sity of London, but he declined it on the consequence of the good-will and confidence of ground that he thought it a matter of duty' all around me, I can at any moment convert

my time into money, but I do not require more ory of my own on voltaic electricity, which was of the latter than is sufficient for necessary pur- the subject of a letter from me to M. Arago on poses. The sum, therefore, of 2001. is quite April 23rd last, and which I here subjoin. M. enough in itself, but not if it is to be the indi- Arago was kind enough to read it to the Acadcator of the character of the appointment; but I emy, but I do not yet know the general opinion think you do not view it so, and that you and I on it. Will you have the goodness to tell me understand each other in that respect; and your sincerely if my theory is good or not, as nobody letter confirms me in that opinion. The posi- is a better judge than yourself. Permit me also tion which I presume you would wish me to hold to ask you another question that interests me is analogous to that of a standing counsel. As much, on account of a work I intend to pubto the title, it might be what you pleased al-lish; what is the most suitable combination to most. Chemical adviser is too narrow; for you would find me venturing into parts of the philosophy of light not chemical. Scientific adviser you may think too broad (or in me too presumptuous); and so it would be, if by it was understood all science. It was the character I held with two other persons at the Admiralty Board in its former constitution. The thought occurs to me, whether, after all, you want such a person as myself. This you must judge of; but I always entertain a fear of taking an office in which I may be of no use to those who engage me. Your applications are however so practical, and often so chemical, that I have no great doubt in the matter."

give to a voltaic battery, in order to produce a spark capable of setting fire to powder under water or under ground? Up to the present I have only seen employed to that purpose piles of thirty to forty pairs constructed on Dr. Woollaston's principles. They are very large, and inconvenient for field service. Could not the same effect be produced by two spiral pairs only, and if so, what can be their smallest dimensions? It is with infinite pleasure that I profit of this opportunity to recall myself to your remembrance, and to assure you that no one entertains a higher opinion of your scientific genius than, yours truly,

"NAPOLEON LOUIS BONAPARTE. South and to Mr. Babbage.' "I beg to be kindly remembered to Sir James


Those who have seen her Majesty's magnificent yacht, the "Victoria and Albert," have doubtlessly sometimes wondered why it was constructed with paddlewheels. It is due to what Faraday calls a "highly philosophic suggestion of the late Prince Consort, that inasmuch as a rotating disc resists any force tending to change the plane of its rotation, the rotation of the paddle-wheels has a tendeney to diminish the rolling of a vessel. It was owing to the kindness of the Prince that a house on Hampton Court Green was offered to Faraday by the Queen; accordingly he left his rooms at the Institution in 1858, and made Hampton Court his residence till his death.

Faraday's life was peculiarly devoid of incident. He lived on quietly year after year, experimenting and lecturing, and occasionally making an excursion into the country or on the Continent for the sake of rest. Though eminently of a social disposition, he went into society but very little. His domestic happiness was so great, and his friendships so firm, that he seems to have found the little time he spared from his work barely sufficient for cultivating these. In a list of things given up by him during the time of his experimental researches in electricity, we find a note for the year 1834:-"Declined all dining out or invitations." But his intimacy with the great scientific men of the day was most close, and it is very interesting to read letters from and to such men as Humboldt, Arago, Liebig, Babbage, &c. At his first interview with Davy, FaraThe following letter, however, is especially day spoke of his desire to escape from valuable from the after-history of the writ- trade, which he thought vicious and selfish, er. It shows that the most depressing and to enter into the service of science, circumstances could not overcome his which he imagined made its pursuers amiever-busy mind, which, when foiled in one able and liberal. Davy smiled at his nodirection, immediately betook itself to tion of the superior moral feelings of philwhat is perhaps, after all, the most sat-osophic men, and said he would leave him isfying the investigation of physical truths.

to the experience of a few years to set him right on that matter. This was doubtless good advice to give to a young man in "Fort of Ham, May 23rd, 1843. "Dear Sir,— You are not aware, I am sure; tic ideas naturally appeared somewhat inFaraday's position, with which his romanthat since I have been here no person has afforded me more consolation than yourself. It is indeed congruous. Yet it must be admitted that in studying the great discoveries which science is the principle of "buy cheap and sell dear," indebted to you for, that I render my captivity has a tendency to narrow and degrade a less sad, and make time flow with rapidity. I man's sympathies, and to make him live submit to your judgment and indulgence a the- more and more for himself, however much

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