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Gorgon : the fame, I fuppose, who is called. Dæmogorgon by other modern writers, and by Spenser, B. I. Canto V. 22.
Which was begot in Dæmogorgon's hall.
IV. 11. 47
Where Dæmogorgon in full darkness pent
They give the name of Dæmogorgon to that terrible nameless deity, of whom Lucan and Statius speak, when they introduce magicians threatning the infernal gods. Statius, Theb. IV. 514. Seimus enim & quicquid dici, noscique timetis, Et turbare Hecaten, ni te, Thymbræe, vererer, Et triplicis mundi fummum quem scire nefaftum. Lucan. VI. 744.
Paretis? an ille Compellandus erit, quo nunquam terra vocato Non concussa tremit; qui Gorgona cernit apertam, Verberibufque fuis trepidam caftigat Erinnyn; Inde speEta tenet vobis qui Tartara ; cujus Vos eftis superi; Stygias qui pejerat undas. To the same Deity he seems to allude, VI. 497.
An habent hæc carmina certum Imperiofa deum, qui mundum cogere, quicquid Cogitur ipse, poteft ?
Demogorgon is a name which perhaps was unknown in the time of Lucan and Statius. However it is to be found in Lactantius. The Scholiast of Statius, on Theb. IV. 516. Dicit deum Demogorgona summum. It is also to be found in Hyginus, page 11. Ex Demogorgone et Terra, Python, draco divinus ; if the place be not corrupted. See Munker.
I find in Natalis Comes V. 6. these words: Pronapis poeta in fuo Protocosmo natum fuisse Pana cum tribus fororibus Parcis e Demogorgone scribit.
The subject here treated of reminds me of a paffage in Lucan, which seems to me not rightly understood, and which shall endeavour to explain. Lucan's Witch, Erichtho, begins her invocation thus. VI. 695. Edit. Oudendorpii. Eumenides, Stygiumque nefas, pænæque nocentum, Et Chaos, innumeros avidum confundere mundos, Et Rector terræ, quem longa in fecula torquet Mors dilata deum,
Where Lucan's Scholiaft says: Rector terræ. Ditem patrem dicit. Hic negu tricos semper vivere, fed etiam eos quandoque perituros. Nihil enim elle volunt perpetuum Epicurei, gros poeta nunc sequitur. Dilata adeo ventura est, fi dilata per longa secula.
To this Oudendorp adds: Alii exponunt; quia cum mori velis, mori non poffis. Rectius.
The Scholiast takes deum to be the genitive case plural, and in that I think he is right: but he is mistaken when he says, that Lucan follows the Epicureans; for the Epicureans ascribed immortality to their gods, that is, to the gods whose existence they pretended to believe, and whom they placed in the Intermundia, there to live in perfect idleness.
As to the interpretation which Oudendorp follows, I would gladly know what ancient authorities he can find to favour it, and why this fame Reflor Terræ should be so tired with his existence, and want so much to die.
I read, with the Scholiast and some editions :
Et Rector terra, quem longa in fecula torquet
By Rector terræ the poet means Pluto, Dis pater, whom, if you please, you may call in English, The God of death, of destruction; he to whom all things return when they die, and whose empire extends over all th:*: that are subject to mutability and dissolution; and who may fay, as Chaos in Milton;
Havock, and spoil, and ruin are my gain.
Cicero De Nat. Deor. II. 26. Terrena autem vis omnis atque natura Diti patri dedicata eft: qui Dives,
ut apud Græcos Ilaštwv, quia et recidant omnia in terras, et oriantur e terris. Here you fee why Pluto is called by Lucan Rector terra.
See Davies on that place of Cicero.
In Claudian, Lachesis says to Pluto, R. Prof.
qui finem cunElis et semina præbes,
In Statius, Theb. VIII. 91. Amphiaraus says to him :
O cunEtis finitor maxime rerum ;
Where see Barthius.
O pofiti fub terra numina mundi,
opibus quorum donatur avaris Quicquid in orbe perit.
This god therefore is here represented by Lucan as, uneasy at the long life of the gods, the poet supposing that the gods should at last perish, ac
cording to the Stoical doctrine, which held them all mortal, except Jupiter, the supreme God. Lucan then makes his witch talk Stoically here; and so he does before, ý 615. At fimul a prima descendit origine mundi Caussarum series, atque omnia fata laborant, Si quidquam mutare velis, unoque sub ietu Stat genus humanum ; tunc, Thessala turba fatemur, Plus Fortuna potest.
Where by Fortuna he means Nature, Stoical Fate: ó £os.
I find that Mr. Rowe has misunderstood the lines I am examining, translating them thus : And thou, sole arbiter of all below, Pluto, whom ruthless fates a god ordain, And doom to immortality of pain.
He making speedy way through spersed air,