P ouvrage du Dieu fevere; condamnoient, avec Tatien, le mariage, l'usage des oeufs, du lait, de la chair, du vin, qu'ils nommoient le fiel du Dieu des tenebres. They forbad the use of wine, which they called the gall of the God of Darkness.

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That, Oye Heavens ! defend, and turn away

From her, unto the miscreant himself. Virgil, Æn. II. 190.

quod Di prius omen in ipsun Convertant!

Spenser here, and in many other places, uses Heaven and the Heavens, for God, and the Gods; as do all modern writers. Whether ancient authors have done so, has been doubted. Vavaflor, in his Treatife De Vi et Ufu quorumdam verborum, says he could find no other example but this of Statius, Silv. I. IV. 4.

Es Cælo, Dis es, Germanice, cordi. I can help the reader to a good many more. Sta. tius uses the word so perpetually. Theb. VI. 16.

- quibus Argos alumnis connexum cælo. Which is something like-genus qui ducis Olymp. in Virgil, Æn. VI. 835. Theb. IX. 97. Dis coram, et colo infpefiante,


Theb. I. 650.

favo tanta inclementia cælo est. Where Barthius : “ Cælo. Superis cælum habitantibus. Frequens pofterioribus Græcis, Latinis, etiam optimi ævi, locutio. Papinius infra, II. 600.

toto necquicquam obfeffus Olympo. hoc est, omnibus Numinibus. Omnes enim divos uno nomine Domus ipsorum censebant. Petronius : Nemo coelum putat, nemo jus jurandum servat. Manilius, V. 18. Araque divorum, cui votum solvit Olympus. Hoc eft, quantum eo Deorum continebatur. Idem IV.

Augusto crescit sub principe cælum.
Hoc eft, numerus Deorum augetur. Claudianus :

providus æther Noluit humano titulos auferre labori. Sedulius : Quid apertius eft Patre teste, Cælo af. sertore.”

So Ovid, Met. VIII. 618.

immenfa eft, finemque potentia cæli Non babet.

Claudian, Epist. ad Hadrianum : Humanæ superos nunquam tetigere querela, Nec vage fecurum penetrant convicia cælum. Ausonius, Grat. A&tione. Augufte Juvenis, Cæli tibi et humani generis rector boc tribuat, ut, &c.

So Heaven fometimes, in the holy Scriptures, and often in the Rabbinical writers, is the name of God. See Whitby on Matth. iii. 2. and the Commentators on Matth. xxi. 25.

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Wherewith, the Souldani all with fury fraught,
Commanded straight his arinour to be brought;
And mounted straight upon a charet high,
With iron wheels and hooks arm’d dreadfully.

But the bold Child that peril well espying,
If he too rashly to his charet drew,
Gave way unto his horfe's fpeedy flying.

See an account of these chariots, currus falcati, in Q..Curtius, IV.9. Alexander bade his soldiers avoid them, laxatis ordinibus. IV. 13.

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That made him rave, like to a lion -
Which being wounded of the huntiman's hand,
Cannot come near him in the covert wood;

Where he with boughs hath built his Thady stand, And fenc'd himself about with many a flaming brand. The lion fears fire. Homer, Il. A. 553.

Καιόμευαί τε δεται, τάς τε τρεϊ έσσύμενός αερο

Incensæque faces, quas korret, violentus quamvis.


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As when the fiery-mouthed steeds, which drew
The Sun's bright wain to Phaeton's decay,
Soon as they did the monstrous Scorpion view,
With ugly craples crawling in their way;
The dreadful fight did them so sore affray,
That their well knowen courses they forwent;
And leading th' ever-burning lamp astray,

This lower world nigh all to ashes brent,
And left their scorched path yet in the firmament.

If the reader examines these lines, he will find in them a figure called avaxóastov, a figure which Spenser deals very much in,-awant of construction. He imitates Ovid 'here, but varies a little from him: for Ovid tells us, that the Scorpion frightened Phaëthon, Met. II. 198.

Hunc puer ut nigri madidum fudore veneni
Vulnera curvata minitantem cuspide vidit,

Mentis inops, gelida formidine lora remifit. Scorched path. Natalis Comez, VI. 1. Finxerunt Phaethontem in ea parte precipue figniferi delirasse, que est ultima Libre in Scorpionem, ubi via dicitur usta : qua gradus decem utrinque continet,

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Like raging Ino, when with knife in hand
She threw her husband's murdred infant out;
Or fell Medea, when on Colchick strand
Her brother's bones she scatter'd all about ;
Or as that madding Mother, 'mongst the rout
Of Bacchus' priests, her own dear flesh did tear.
Yet neither Ino, nor Medea stout,

Nor all the Moenades [Mænades] so furious were. Raging Ino, &c. See Natalis Comnes, VIII. 4. By the madding Mother he means, I suppose, Agave, who tore her son Pentheus to pieces.

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IX. 13
Like as the fowler on his guileful pipe

Charms to the birds full many a pleasant lay:
So in Colin Clout's Come Home Again:

The Shepherd's boy
Sat, as his custom was, upon a day,
Charming his oaten pipe unto his peers.

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All lovely daughters of high Jove, that hight
Litæ, by him begot in love's delight,
Upon the righteous Themis : those they say
Upon Jove's judgment-seat wait day and night :

And when in wrath he threats the world's decay,
They do his anger calin, and cruel vengeance stay.


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