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Page. Now, good master doctor!
Host. To see thee fight, to see thee foin,' to see thee traverse, to see thee here, to see thee there; to see thee pass thy punto, thy stock, thy reverse, thy distance, thy montant. Is he dead, my Ethiopian? is he dead, my Francisco ?2 ha, bully? What says my Æsculapius? my Galen? my heart of elder?3 ha! is he dead, bully Stale ? 4 is he dead?
Caius. By gar, he is de coward Jack priest of the vorld: he is not show his face.
Host. Thou art a Castilian5 king, Urinal! Hector of Greece, my boy!
to see thee foin, ] To foin, I believe, was the ancient term for making a thrust in fencing, or tilting. So, in The Wise Woman of Hogsdon, 1638.
“ I had my wards, and foins, and quarter blows." Again, in The Devil's Charter, 1607:
suppose my duellist
“ Here will I take him. Spenser, in his Fairy Queen, often uses the word foin. So, in B. II, c. 8:
“ And strook and foyn’d, and lash'd outrageously." Again, in Holinshed, p. 833: “First six foines with hand speares,” &c. Steevens.
thy stock,] Stock is a corruption of stocata, Ital. from which language the technical terms that follow are likewise adopted. Steevens.
my Francisco?] He means, my Frenchman. The quarto reads--my Francoyes. Malone.
my heart of elder?] It should be remembered, to make this joke relish, that the elder tree has a soft spungy heart. I suppose this expression was made use of in opposition to the common one, heart of oak. Steevens.
bully Stale?] The reason why Caius is called bully Stale, and afterwards. Urinal, must be sufficiently obvious to every reader, and especially to those whose credulity and weakness have enrolled them among the patients of the present German empiric, who calls himself Doctor Alexander Mayersbach.
Steevens. Castilian~] Sir T. Hanmer reads--Cardalian, as used corruptedly for Caur de Lion. Johnson.
Castilian and Ethiopian, like Cataian, appear in our author's time to have been cant terms. I have met with them in more
Caius. I pray you, bear vitness that me have stay six or seven, two, tree hours for him, and he is no come.
Shal. He is the wiser man, master doctor: he is a curer of souls, and you a curer of bodies; if you should fight, you go against the hairs of your professions; is it not true, master Page?
than one of the old comedies. So, in a description of the Armada introduced in the Stately Moral of the Three Lords of London, 1590 :
* To carry, as it were, a careless regard of these Castilians, and their accustomed bravado.” Again:
" To parley with the proud Castilians." I suppose Castilian was the cant term for Spaniard in general.
Steevens. I believe this was a popular slur upon the Spaniards, who were held in great contempt after the business of the Armada. Thus we have a Treatise Parenetical, wherein is sherred the right Way to resist the Castilian King; and somet prefixed to Lea's Answer to the Untruths published in Spain, in glorie of their supposed Victory atchieved against our English Navie, begins : “ Thou fond Castilian king.!"-
and so in other places.
Farmer. Dr. Farmer's observation is just. Don Philip the Second affected the title of king of Spain; but the realms of Spain would not agree to it, and only styled him King of Castile and Leon, &c. and so he wrote himself. His cruelty and ambitious views upon other states rendered him universally detested. The Castilians, being descended chiefly from Jews and Moors, were deemed to be of a malign and perverse disposition; and hence, perhaps, the term Castilian became opprobrious. I have extracted this note from an old pamphlet, called The Spanish Pilgrime, which I have reason to suppose is the same discourse with the Treuiise Parenetical, mentioned by Di Farmer. Toilet.
Dr. Farmer, I beliere, is right. The Host, who, availing himself of the poor Doctor's ignorance of English phraseology, applies to him all kinds of opprobrious terms, here means to call him a coward. So, in The Three Lords of London, 1590:
My lordes, what means these gallants to perforine ? “ Come these Casiillian cowards but to brave?
“ Do all these mountains move, to breed a mouse?” There may, however, be also an allusion to his profession, as a water-caster.
I know not whether we should not rather point-Thou art a Castilian, king-urinal! &c. In K. Henry VIII, Wolsey is called count cardinal. Malone.
against the hair &c.] This phrase is proverbial, and is taken from stroking the hair of animals a contrary way to that in
Page. Master Shallow, you have yourself been a great fighter, though now a man of
peace. Shal. Bodykins, master Page, though I now be old, and of the peace, if I see a sword out, my finger itches to make one; though we are justices, and doctors, and churchmen, master Page, we have some salt of our youth in us; we are the sons of women, master Page.
Page. 'Tis true, master Shallow.
Shal. It will be found so, master Page. Master doctor Caius, I am come to fetch you home. I am sworn of the peace; you have showed yourself a wise physician, and sir Hugh hath shown himself a wise and patient churchman : you must go with me, master doctor.
Host. Pardon, guest justice :-A word, monsieur Muck-water. 6
Caius. Muck-vater! vat is dat?
Host. Muck-water, in our English tongue, is valour, bully.
Caius. By gar, then I have as much muck-vater as
which it grows. So, in T. Churchyard's Discourse of Rebellion, &c. 1570:
“ You shoote amis when boe is drawen to eare,
“ And brush the cloth full sore against the heare.” We now say against the grain. Steevens. Muck water.] The old copy reads-mock-water.
Steevens. The Host means, I believe, to reflect on the inspection of urine, which made a considerable part of practical physick i.. that time; yet I do not well see the meaning of mock-water.
Fohnson. Dr. Farmer judiciously proposes to read-muck-water, i. e. the drain of a dunghill.
Henry Cornelius Agrippa, of the Vanitie and Uncertainty of Artes and Sciences, Englished by James Sanford, Gent. bl. 1. 4to. 1569, might have furnished Shakspeare with a sufficient hint for the compound term muck-water, as applied to Dr. Caius. Dr. Farmer's e nendation is completely countenanced by the same work, p. 145:
“Furthermore, Phisitians oftentimes be contagious by reason of urine," &c. but the rest of the passage (in which the names of Esculapius, Hippocrates, &c. are ludicrously introduced) is too indelicate to be laid before the reader. Steevens.
Muck-water, as explained by Dr. Farmer, is mentioned in Evelyn's Philosophical Discourse on Earth, 1676, p. 160. Reed.
de Englishman:Scurvy jack-dog priest! by gar, me vill cut his ears.
Host. He will clapper-claw? thee tightly, bully.
Caius. By gar, me do look, he shall clapper-de-claw me; for, by gar, me vill have it.
Host. And I will provoke him to 't, or let him wag. Caius. Me tank you for dat.
Host. And moreover, bully,—But first, master guest, and master Page, and eke cavalero Slender, go you through the town to Frogmore. [Aside to them.
Page. Sir Hugh is there, is he?
Host. He is there: see what humour he is in; and I will bring the doctor about by the fields: will it do well?
Shal. We will do it.
[Exeunt Page, ShaL. and Slen. Caius. By gar, me vill kill de priest; for he speak for a jack-an-ape to Anne Page.
Host. Let him die: but, first, sheath thy impatience; throw cold water on thy choler :8 go about the fields with me through Frogmore; I will bring thee where mistress Anne Page is, at a farm house a feasting; and thou shall woo her: Cry'd game, said I well ?
clapper-claw -] This word occurs also in Tom Tyler and his Wife, bl. l.
“ Wife. I would clapper-claw thy bones.” Steevens.
cry'd game, said I well?] Mr. Theobald alters this nonsense to try'd game; that is, to nonsense of a worse complex. ion. Shakspeare wrote and pointed thus crY AIM, said I well ? i. e. consent to it, approve of it. Have not I made a good proposal? for to cry aim signifies to consent to, or approve of any thing. So, again in this play: And to these violent proceedings all my neighbours shall CRY AIM, i. e. approve them. And again, in King Fohn, Act II, sc. ii :
It ill becomes this presence to cry aim
“ To these ill-tuned repetitions." i. e. to approve of, or encourage them. The phrase was taken, originally, from archery. When any one had challenged another to shoot at the butts, (the perpetual diversion, as well as exer
Caius. By gar, me tank you for dat: by gar, I love you; and I shall procure-a you de good guest, de earl, de knight, de lords, de gentlemen, my patients.
cise, of that time,) the standers-by used to say one to the other, Cry aim, i. e. accept the challenge. Thus Beaumont and Fletcher, in The Fair Maid of the Inn, Act V, make the Duke say:
must I cry AIME
" To this unheard of insolence ?". i.e. encourage it, and agree to the request of the duel, which one of his subjects had insolently demanded against the other.-But here it is remarkable, that the senseless editors, not knowing what to make of the phrase, Cry aim, read it thus :
must I cry AI-ME;" as if it was a note of interjection. So again, Massinger, in his Guardian :
“I will CRY AIM, and in another room
“ Determine of my vengeance.". And Again, in his Renegado :
To play the pander
“While he by force or flattery,” &c. But the Oxford editor transforms it to Cock o' the game; and his improvements of Shakspeare's language abound with these modern elegances of speech, such as mynheers, bull-baitings, &c.
Warburton. Dr. Warburton is right in his explanation of cry aim, and in supposing that the phrase was taken from archery; but is cer. tainly wrong in the particular practice which he assigns for the original of it. It seems to have been the office of the aim-crier, to give notice to the archer when he was within a proper distance of his mark, or in a direct line with it, and to point out why ho failed to strike it. So, in All's lost by Lust, 1633:
“ He gives me aim, I am three bows too short ;
“I'll come up nearer next time." Again, in Vittoria Corombona, 1612:
“ I 'll give aim to you,
“ And tell how near you shoot.” Again, in The Spanish Gipsie, by Rowley and Middleton, 1653: Though I am no great mark in respect of a huge butt, yet I can tell you, great bobbers have shot at me, and shot golden arrows; but I myself gave aim, thus:-wide, four bows; short, three and a half;" &c. Again, in Green's Tu Quoque, (no date) “We'll stand by, and give aim, and holoo if you hit the clout.” Again, in Jarvis Markham's English Arcadia, 1607: “ Thou smiling aim-crier at princes' fall.” Again, ibid. “ while her own creatures, like aim criers, beheld her mischance with nothing but lip-pity.” In Ames's Typographical Antiquities, p. 402, a book is mentioned, called “
Ayme for Finsburie Archers, or an Alphabetical Table of the name of every Murk in the same Fields, witla