But mark, how heavily this befel to the poor gentlewoman: there she lost a noble and renowned brother; in his love toward her ever most kind and natural, with him the portion and sinew of her fortune, her marriage-dowry; with both, her combinate husband, this well-seeming Angelo!

Isab. Can this be so ? Did Angelo so leave her? Duke. Left her in tears, and dry'd not one of them with his comfort ; swallowed his vows whole, pretending, in her, discoveries of dishonour: in few, bestowed her on her own lamentation, which she yet wears for his sake; and he, a marble to her tears, is washed with them, but relents not.

Isab, What a merit were it in death, to take this poor maid from the world! What corruption in this life, that it will let this man live-But how out of this can she avail?

Duke. It is a rupture that you may easily heal and the cure of it not only saves your brother, but keeps you from dishonour in doing it

Isab. Show me how, good father.

Duke. This fore-named maid hath yet in her the continuance of her first affection; his unjust unkindness, that in all reason should have quenched her love, hath, like an impediment in the current, made it more violent and unruly. Go you to Angelo; answer his requiring with a plausible obedience; agree with his demands to the point; only refer yourself to this advantage,!—first, that your stay with him may not be long; that the time may have all shadow and silence in it; and the place answer to convenience: this being grant


☆ – her combinate husband, ] Combinate is betrothed, settled by contract. Steevens.

bestowed her on her own lamentation,] i. e. left her to her sorrows. Malone.

Rather, as our author expresses himself in King Henry V:gave her up” to them. Steevens.

only refer yourself to this advantage,] This is scarcely to be reconciled to any established mode of speech. We may read, only reserve yourself to, or only reserve to yourself this advantage. Fohnson.

Refer yourself to, merely signifies have recourse to, betake yourself to, this advantage. Steevens.


ed in course, now follows all. We shall advise this wronged maid to stead up your appointment, go in your place; if the encounter acknowledge itself hereafter, it may coinpel him to her recompense: and here, by this, is your brother saved, your honour untainted, the poor Mariana advantaged, and the corrupt deputy scaled. The maid will I frame, and make fit for his attempt.

If you think well to carry this as you may, the doubleness of the benefit defends the deceit from reproof. What think you of it?

Isab. The image of it gives me content already; and, I trust, it will grow to a most prosperous perfection.

Duke. It lies much in your holding up: Haste you speedily lo Angelo; if for this night he entreat you to his bed, give him promise of satisfaction. I will presently to St. Luke's; there, at the moated granges resides this dejected Mariana: At that place call upon me; and despatch with Angelo, that it may be quickly.

the corrupt deputy scaled.). To scale the deputy may be, to reach him, notwithstanding the elevation of bis place; or it may be, to strip him and discover bis nakedness, though armed and concealed by the investments of authority. Jobnson.

To scale, as may be learned from a note to Coriolanus, Act I, sc. i, most certainly means, to disorder, to disconcert, to put to flight. An army routed is called by Holinshed, an army scaled. The word sometimes signifies to diffuse or disperse ; at others, as I suppose in the present instance, to put into confusion.

Steevens. To scale is certainly to reach (as Dr. Johnson explains it) as well as to disperse or spread abroad, and hence its application to a routed army which is scattered over the field. The Duke's meaning appears to be, either that Angelo would be over-reached, as a town is by the scalade, or that his true character would be spread or laid open, so that his vileness would become evident. Ür. Warburton thinks it is weigbet, a meaning which Dr. Johnson affixes to the word in another place. See Coriolanus, Act 1, sc. i.

Scaled, however, may mean-laid open, as a corrupt sore is by removing the slough that covers it. The allusion is rendered less disgusting, by more elegant guage, in Hamlet:

• It will but skin and film the ulcerous place :
“ Whiles rank corruption, mining all within,
“Infects unseen.” Ritson.

- the inoated grange -] A grange is a solitary farmhouse. So, in Otbello:

this is Venice,
My house is not a grange.Steevens.

Isab. I thank you for this comfort: Fare you well, good father.

[Exeunt severally.


The Street before the Prison.
Enter DUKE as a Friar; to him Elbow, Clown,

and Officers. Elb. Nay, if there be no remedy for it, but that you will needs buy and sell inen and women like beasts, we shall have all the world drink brown and white bastard.4

Duke. O, heavens! what stuff is here?

Clo. 'Twas never merry world, since, of two usu. ries, the merriest was put down, and the worser al

A grange implies some one particular house immediately inferior in rank to a ball, situated at a small distance from the town or village from which it takes its name ; as Hornby grange, Blackwell grange; and is in the neighbourhood simply called The Grange. Originally, perhaps, these buildings were the lord's granary or storehouse, and the residence of his chief bailiff. (Grange, from Granagium, Lat.) Ritson.

A grange, in its original signification, meant a farm-house of a monastery (from grana gerendo), from which it was always at some little distance.

One of the monks was usually appointed to inspect the accounts of the farm. He was called the Prior of the Grange ;-in barbarous Latin, Gragniarius. Be. ing placed at a distance from the monastery, and not connected with any other buildings, Shakspeare, with his wonted license, uses it, both here and in Othello, in the sense of a solitary farmhouse.

I have since observed that the word was used in the same sense by the contemporary writers. So, in Tarleton's Neues out of Purgatory, printed about the year 1590: “ till my return I would have thee stay at our little graunge house in the country.”

In Lincolnshire they at this day call every lone house that is unconnected with others, a grange. Malone. -bastard.] A kind of sweet wine, then much in

vogue, from the Italian bastardo Warburton.

See a note on King Henry IV, Part I, Act II, sc. iv. Steevens.

Bastard was raisin-wine. See Minshieu's Dict. in v. and Cole's Latin Dict. 1679. Malone.

since, of two usuries,] Here a satire on usury turns abruptly to a satire on the person of the usurer, without any


low'd by order of law a furr'd gown to keep him warm; and furr'd with fox and lamb-skins too, to signify, that craft, being richer than innocency, stands for the facing.

Elb. Come your way, sir:- Bless you, good father friar.

Duke. And you, good brother father:7 What offence hath this man made you, sir?

Elb. Marry, sir, he hath offended the law; and, sir, we take him to be a thief too, sir; for we have found



kind of preparation. We may be assured then, that a line or two, at least, have been lost. The subject of which we may easily discover was a comparison between the two usurers; as, before, between the two usuries. So that, for the future, the passage should be read with asterisks, thus-by order of law,

a furr'd gown, &c. Warburton. Sir Thomas Hanmer corrected this with less pomp, then since of two usurers the merriest was put down, and the worser allowed, by order of law, a furr'd gown, &c. His punctuation is right, but the alteration, small as it is, appears more than was wanted. Usury may be used by an easy license for the professors of usury.

Johnson. - and furr’d with fox and lamb-skins too, &c.] In this passage the foxes' skins are supposed to denote craft, and the lamb-skins innocence. It is evident therefore that we ought to read, “ furred with fox on lamb-skins," instead of “and lambskins;" for otherwise, craft will not stand for the facing:

M. Mason Fox-skins and lamb-skins were both used as facings to cloth in Shakspeare's time. See the Statute of Apparel, 24 Henry VIII, c. 13. Hence fox furr'd slave is used as an opprobrious epithet in Wily Beguiled, 1606, and in other old comedies. See also Churracterismi, or Lenton's Leasures, &c. 1631: “ An Usurer is an old fox, clad in lamb-skin, who hath pray'd (prey'd] so long abroad,” &c. Malone.

and you, good brother father:] In return to Elbow's blundering address of good futher friar, i. e. good father brother, the Duke humorously calls him, in his own style, good brother father. This would appear still clearer in French.

Dieu vous benisse, mon pere frere.--Et vous aussi, mon frere pere. There is no doubt that our friar is a corruption of the French frere.

Tyrobitt. Mr. Tyrwhitt's observation is confirmed by a passage in The Strangest Allventure that ever happened, &c. 4to. 1601 :

“ And I call to mind, that as the reverend father brother, Thomas Sequera, Superiour of Ebora, and mine auncient friend, came to visite me,” sic, Stesyens.

upon him, sir, a strange pick-lock, which we have sent to the deputy.

Duke. Fy, sirrah; a bawd, a wicked bawd!
The evil that thou causest to be done,
That is thy means to live : Do thou but think
What 'tis to cram a maw, or clothe a back,
From such a filthy vice: say to thyself,
From their abominable and beastly touches
I drink, I eat, array myself, and live.'
Canst thou believe thy living is a life,
So stinkingly depending? Go, mend, go, mend.

C!o. Indeed, it does stink in some sort, sir; but yet, sir, I would prove Duke. Nay if the devil have given thee proofs for

Thou wilt prove his. Take him to prison, officer;
Correction and instruction must both work,
Ere this rụde beast will profit.

Elb. He must before the deputy, sir; he has given him warning: the deputy cannot abide a whore-master: if he be a whore-monger, and comes before him, he were as good go a mile on his errand.

Duke. That we were all, as some would seem to be, Free from our faults, as faults from seeming, free!


a strange pick-lock,] As we hear no more of this charge, it is necessary to prevent honest Pompey from being taken for a house-breaker. The locks which he had occasion to pick, were by no means common, in this country at least. They were probably introduced, with other Spanish customs, during the reign of Philip and Mary; and were so well known in Edinburgh, that in one of Sir David Lindsay's plays represented to thousands in the open air, such a lock is actually opened on the stage.' Ritson. 9 I drink, I eat, array myself, and live.] The old editions have,

I drink, I eat away myself, and live. This is one very excellent instance of the sagacity of our edi. tors, and it were to be wished beartily, that they would have obliged us with their physical solution, how a man can eat away himself, and live. Mr. Bishop gave me that most certain emendation, which I have substituted in the room of the former foolish reading ; by the help whereof, we have this easy sense : that the Clown fed himself, and put clothes on his back, by exercising the vile trade of a bawd. Theobald.


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