If you

To-morrow you set on).

Is there no remedy?
Isab. None, but such a remedy, as, to save a head,
To cleave a heart in twain.

But is there any?
Isab. Yes, brother, you may live;
There is a devilish mercy in the judge,

'll implore it, that will free your life,
But fetter you till death.

Perpetual durance?
Isab. Ay, just, perpetual durance; a restraint,
Though all the world's vastidity you had,
To a determin’d scope.?

But in what nature?
Isab. In such a one as (you consenting to 't)
Would bark your honours from that trunk your bear,
And leave you


being fitted for any thing. So in old books, we have a knight well appointed ; that is, well armed and mounted, or fitted at all points. Fobnson.

The word leiger is thus used in The Comedy of Look about You, 1600 :

“ Why do you stay, Sir?-.

Madam, as leiger to solicit for your absent love." Again, in Leicester's Commonwealth, a special man of that hasty king, who was his Ledger, or Agent, in London,” &c.

Steevens. your best appointment -] The word appointment, on this occasion, should seem to comprehend confession, communion, and absolution. “ Let him (says Escalus) be furnished with divines, and have all charitable preparation.” The King in Hamlet, who was cut off prematurely, and without such preparation, is said to be dis-appointed. Appointment, however, may be more simply explained by the following passage in The Antipodes, 1638 :

your lodging
“Is decently appointed. i. e. prepared, furnished.

Steevens. 6 Though all the world's vastidity --] The old copy readsThrough all, &c. Corrected by Mr. Pope. Malone.

a restraint To a determin'd scope.] A confinement of your mind to one painful idea; to ignominy, of which the remembrance can neither be suppressed nor escaped. Johnson.

8 Would bark your honour -] A metaphor from strippi trees of their bark. Douce.




Let me know the point.
Isab. O, I do fear thee, Claudio; and I quake,
Lest thou a feverous life should'st entertain,
And six or seven winters more respect
Than a perpetual honour. Dar'st thou die?
The sense of death is most in apprehension;
And the poor beetle, that we tread upon,
In corporal sufferance finds a pang as great
As when a giant dies.

Why give you me this shame? Think


I can a resolution fetch From flowery tenderness? If I must die, I will encounter darkness as a bride, And hug it in mine arms." Isab. There spake my brother; there my father's

grave Did utter forth a voice! Yes, thou must die: Thou art too noble to conserve a life In base appliances. This outward-sainted deputy, Whose settled visage and deliberate word Nips youth i' the head, and follies doth enmew,

9 the poor beetle, &c.] The reasoning is, that death is no more than every being must suffer, though the dread of it is peculiar to man; or perhaps, that we are inconsistent with ourselves, when we so much dread that which we carelessly inflict on other creatures, that feel the pain as acutely as we. Fahnson.

The meaning is-fear is the principal sensation in death, which has no pain ; and the giant when he dies feels no greater pain than the beetle. This passage, however, from its arrange. ment, is liable to an opposite construction, but which would totally destroy the illustration of the sentiment. Douce. 1 I will encounter darkness as a bride,

And hug it in mine arms.) So, in the first part of Jeronimo, or The Spanish Tragedy, 1605 :

“That yawning Beldam, with her jetty skin,

“ 'Tis she I hug as nine effeminate bride." Steevens Again, in Antony and Cleopatra::

I will be
A bridegroom in my death; and run into 't,
“ As to a lover's bed.” Malone

- follies doth enmew,] Forces follies to lie in cover, without daring to show themselves. Fohnsoll.

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As falcon doth the fowl, 3—is yet a devil;
His filth within being cast,4 he would appear
A pond as deep as hell.

The princely Angelo?
Isab. O, 'tis the cunning livery of hell,
The damned'st body to invest and cover
In princely guards !5 Dost thou think, Claudio,

3 As falcon doth the fowl,] In whose presence the follies of youth are afraid to shew themselves, as the fowl is afraid to fiut. ter while the falcon hovers over it. So, in the Third Part of King Henry VI:

- not he that loves him best,
“ The proudest he that holds up Lancaster,

Dares stir a wing, if Warwick shakes his bells.” To enmew is a term in falconry, also used by Beaumont and Fletcher, in The Knight of Malta :

- I have seen him scale,
- As if a falcon had run up a train,
“ Clashing his warlike pinions, his steel'd cuirass,

And, at his pitch, enmew the town below him.” Steevens. * His filth within being cast,] To cast a pond is to empty it of mud. Mr. Upton reads:

- His pond within being cast, he would appear

A filth as deep as hell. Johnson. 5 The princely Angelo?

princely guards ?] The stupid editors, mistaking guards for satellites, (whereas it here signifies lace) altered priestly, in both places, to princely. Whereas Shakspeare wrote it priestly, as appears from the words themselves :

'Tis the cunning livery of bell, The damned'st body to invest and cover,

With priestly guards.In the first place we see that guards here signifies lace, as referring to livery, and as having no sense in the signification of satellites. Now priestly guards means sanctity, which is the sense required. But princely guards means nothing but rich lace, which is a sense the passage will not bear. Angelo, indeed, as deputy, might be called the princely Angelo: but not in this place, where the immediately preceding words of,

This out-ward sainted deputy, demand the reading I have restored. Warburton.

The first folio has, in both places, prenzie, from which the other folios made princely, and cvery editor may make what he can. Johnson.



If I would yield him my virginity,
Thou might'st be freed?

O, heavens! it cannot be.
Isab. Yes, he would give it thee, from this rank offence,
So to offend him still: This night's the time
That I should do what I abhor to name,
Or else thou diest to-morrow.

Thou shalt not do 't.
Isab. O, were it but my life,
I'd throw it down for your deliverance
As frankly as a pin.?

Thanks, dear Isabel.
Isab. Be ready, Claudio, for your death to-morrow.

Claud. Yes.-Has he affections in him,
That thus can make him bite the law by the nose,
When he would force it? Sure it is no sin;

Princely is the judicious correction of the second folio. Princely guards mean no more than the badges of royalty, (laced or bor. dered robes) which Angelo is supposed to assume during the absence of the Duke. The stupidity of the first editors is some. times not more injurious to Shakspeare, than the ingenuity of those who succeeded them.

In the old play of Cambyses I meet with the same expression. Sisamnes is left by Cambyses to distribute justice while he is ab. sent; and in a soliloquy says:

“Now may I wear the brodered garde,

“ And lye in downe-bed soft." Again, the queen of Cambyses says:

“ I do forsake these broder'd gardes,
" And all the facions new.

Steevens. A guard, in old language, meant a welt or border of a garment; " because ( says Minshieu) it gards and keeps the garment from kearing." These borders were sometimes of lace. So, in The Merchant of Venice:

Give him a livery
“ More guarded than his fellows:” Malone.

- from this rank offence,] I believe means, from the time of my committing this offence, you might persist in sinning with safety The advantages you would derive from my having such a secret of his in my keeping, would ensure you from fura ther harm on account of the same fault, however frequently repeated. Steevens.

as a pin.] So, in Hamlet:

“ I do not set my life at a pin's fee.Stçedens, 8 His be affections, &c.] Is be actuated by passions that im. fel him to trasgress the law, at the very moment that he is enforce



Or of the deadly seven it is the least.9

Isab. Which is the least?

Claud. If it were damnable, he, being so wise,
Why, would he for the momentary trick
Be perdurably fin’d?_() Isabel!

Isab. What says my brother?

Death is a fearful thing. Isab. And shamed life a hateful.

Claud. Ay, but to die, and go we know not where ; To lie in cold obstruction, and to rot: This sensible warm motion to become A kneaded clod; and the delighted spirit

ing it against others? [1 find, he is.] Surely then, since this is so general a propensity, since the judge is as criminal as he whom he condemns, it is no sin, or at least a venial one. So, in the next Act:

A deflower'd maid,
And by an eminent body that enforc'd

The law against it."
Force is again used for enforce in King Henry VIII:

“If you will now unite in your complaints,

“And force them with a constancy." Again in Coriolanus :

Why force you this?” Malone. 9 Or of the deadly seven, &c.] It may be useful to know which they are; the reader is therefore presented with the following catalogue of them, viz. Pride, Envy Wrath, Sloth, Covetousness, Gluttony, and Lechery. To recapitulate the punishments hereafter for these sins, might have too powerful an effect upon the weak nerves of the present generation; but whoever is desirous of being particularly acquainted with them, may find information in some of the old monkish systems of divinity, and especially in a curious book entitled Le Kalendrier des Bergiers, 1500, folio, of which there is an English translation. Douce.

1 If it were damnable, &c.] Shakspeare shows his knowledge of human nature in the conduct of Claudio. When Isabella first tells him of Angelo's proposal, he answers, with honest indignation, agreeably to his settled principles,

Thou shalt not do't. But the love of life being permitted to operate, soon furnishes him with sophistical arguments; he believes it cannot be very dangerous to the soul, since Angelo, who is so wise, will venture it. Fohnson. 2 Be perdurably find?] Perdurably is lastingly. So, in Otbello:

-cables of perdurable toughness." Steevens.

delighted spirit -] i. e, the spirit accustomed here to ease and delights. This was properly urged as an aggravatio

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