Common Sense: The Foundations for Social Science

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F. L. van Holthoon, David R. Olson
University Press of America, 1 jan. 1987 - 375 pagina's
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Common sense involves not only the basic beliefs of a particular society but also the fundamental presuppositions of all human knowledge. Because it is both, it continues to bear the marks of ambiguity which characterized its use in the Enlightenment. But it is important to notice that any attempt at the specialization or extension of knowledge makes some assumptions about common sense plays either the role of the conservative voice which must be criticized and replaced by a more disciplined form of inquiry or it is the liberating view which may be used in the criticism, reform, and the eventual restructuring of some dominating and specialized world view. All this is particularly pertinent to the contributors to this volume who are internationally known representatives of the major branches of the social sciences for all of whom common sense is intimately related to their more formal social science inquiries. Volume VI in the Sources in Semiotics Series.
  

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Inhoudsopgave

Common Sense An Introduction
1
The Uses of Common Sense
2
Common Sense in Philosophy
6
Common Sense in History
7
Common Sense in Society
9
Common Sense in Psychology
11
Concluding Comments
12
References
14
On the Historical Change of Social Distributions of Knowledge
192
Science Versus Common Sense?
193
Rationalization of Common Sense?
195
References
197
Common Sense and Social Structure A Sociological View
199
Functions of Common Sense
202
The appeal function
203
Social Structure and Common Sense
204

Common Sense From Certainty to Happiness
17
The Wheel of Commonsense Senses
19
Certainty
21
Happiness
25
References
33
Foundationalism and Common Sense
35
Foundationalist Formula
37
Criticisms
39
Characterizations
43
Criteria
49
References
54
Common Sense and Perception in the Philosophy of G E Moore
55
Judgments of Perception
57
The Analysis of Judgments of Perception
65
The Limits of Phenomenological Analysis
75
Conclusion
76
References
80
Sensus Communis in the Works of M Tullius Cicero
83
Ciceros Career
84
The Speeches
86
His Works on Rhetoric
89
The Philosophical Works
91
Cicero as a Writer of Classical Latin
92
Postscript
94
References
96
Common Sense and Natural Law From Thomas Aquinas to Thomas Reid
99
A Prologue
100
Common Sense Natural Law and Scepticism
102
Postscript
111
References
113
Common Sense Between Bacon and Vico Scepticism in England and Italy
115
References
131
Enlightenment and the Decay of Common Sense
133
References
150
The Common Sense of Rousseau
155
Emiles Education
156
Common Sense and the Achievement Motive
158
The Ideal State
159
Rousseau on the Social Contract
161
Emile and his Social Contract Rousseau on Common Sense
164
Emile and Sophie
166
The Common Sense of Rousseau
168
On the Influence of Rousseau
169
Rethinking Rousseaus Message
172
References
175
Some Thoughts on Common Sense and Science
179
On the Structures of Subjective Knowledge
182
On the Structure of Social Stocks of Knowledge
185
Simple Social Distribution of Knowledge
186
Complex Social Distributions of Knowledge
189
Power
207
Institutions
208
Social sciences
209
Summary and Conclusion
210
Comparison to Other Concepts of Common Sense
213
Common Sense from a CriticalHistorical Perspective
217
The Dialectic of Commonsense Knowledge and Expert Knowledge
221
The Problem of the Enlightenment Synthesis
223
Enlightenment Thinking and the Ideology of Common Sense
225
Marx and the Critique of Bourgeois Ideology
226
The German Ideology
227
Knowledge and Human Interests
228
Democracy and Critical Common Sense
231
References
233
Common Sense and Common Convictions
235
Sociology as a Science
236
Phenomenological Sociology
239
The Hermeneutical Point of View
257
Description and Practical Reflection
267
References
272
Commonsense Mentalism and Psychological Theory
277
The Faces of Commonsense Mentalism
278
Smedslund on Commonsense Psychology
281
The pure and the empirical
284
Reconstructing the core of psychological theory
289
Description and ascription
291
References
295
The Structure of Commonsense Reasoning About Personal Causality The Case of Avoiding Blame
297
Subjective Competence Theory
298
Structure
299
Motivation
304
Applications of the Theory to Four Examples
307
The computer did it
310
Childrens verbal exchanges
314
Conclusion
316
References
318
Schooling and the Transformation of Common Sense
319
Transformations in the structure of knowledge
330
Transformation in the structure and the functions of language
332
Transformations in the attitude to knowledge and personal competence
336
References
341
Common Sense and Scientific Thinking
345
Two Ways of Thinking
347
Commonsense Thinking
348
Scientific Thinking
351
References
358
Author Index
361
Subject Index
367
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Over de auteur (1987)

David R. Olson is University Professor Emeritus of the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education/University of Toronto. He has written extensively on language, literacy, and cognition, including the widely anthologized article 'From Utterance to Text: The Bias of Language in Speech and Writing' (1977). His book The World on Paper (Cambridge University Press, 1994) has been translated into several languages. He is co-editor with Nancy Torrance of The Handbook of Education and Human Development (1996), co-editor with Michael Cole of Technology, Literacy and the Evolution of Society: Implications of the Work of Jack Goody (2006), co-editor with Janet Astington and Paul Harris of Developing Theories of Mind (Cambridge University Press, 1988), co-editor with Nancy Torrance of Literacy and Orality (Cambridge University Press, 1991), and co-editor with Nancy Torrance and Angela Hildyard of Literacy, Language and Learning (Cambridge University Press, 1985). His most recent authored book is Psychological Theory and Educational Reform: How School Remakes Mind and Society (Cambridge University Press, 2003).

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